Fracture and Damage Mechanics V

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Authors: Jian Ke Sun, Zhen Li, Qing Fen Li
Abstract: Ti-alloy is widely used in engineering because it possesses excellent specific strength and corrosion resistance. The effect of welding process on J-integral value and fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate in a Ti-alloy is experimentally investigated in this paper. A series of test is performed with SENB specimens for J-integral test and CT specimens for the FCG rate test respectively. Base metal, welded joint and HAZ materials were used to make different test specimens. Results show that the J-integral values of welded joint and HAZ are obviously smaller than those of the base metal. And that the FCG rate value of welded joint is much higher than those of base metal and HAZ material. It means that welding process may lead to a great reduction in fracture toughness and the fatigue property for titanium alloy. Therefore, the inhomogeneity of the welded joint must be considered when assess welded structures.
Authors: Tao Xu, Gao Lin, Chun An Tang, Zhi Qiang Hu
Abstract: The phenomenon creep fracture is well-known for concrete. In the present paper, the Material Failure Process Analysis (MFPA2D) model for concrete in the failure process is coupled in series with the time-dependence of the concrete damage and deformation. Further, the progressive creep failure of concrete specimens under constant tensile loading was numerically simulated and the typical time-dependent deformations: the transient creep, the steady-state creep and the accelerating creep were also represented. The numerical simulations indicate that the macroscopic creep failure is induced by clusters of micro-fractures on a mesocopic scale. The above numerical results offer us some theoretical indications and instructions to further investigate the instability failure mechanisms of engineering concrete structures in civil and hydraulic engineering.
Authors: Xin Zhu Zhou, Jian Jun Zheng
Abstract: Practical experience and observations suggest that corrosion affected reinforced concrete (RC) structures are more prone to cracking than other forms of structural deterioration. Concrete cracking incurs considerable costs of repairs and inconvenience to the public due to interruptions. This gives rise to the need for prediction of the time to surface cracking of concrete in order to achieve cost-effectiveness in maintaining the serviceability of RC structures. The intention of this paper is to develop a numerical method for predicting the time to surface cracking of corrosion affected RC structures. In this method, concrete with embedded reinforcing steel bars is modeled as a thick-wall cylinder. With an exponential curve modeling the energy dissipation process in concrete, the element transfer matrix is derived analytically. The time to surface cracking is then determined by solving the nonlinear problem numerically. Finally, the validity of this numerical method is verified by comparing with experimental results collected from the research literature.
Authors: Zheng Yang, Wan Lin Guo, Chun Yong Huo, Yi Wang
Abstract: The delamination cracks and its effects on the fracture of pipeline steel are investigated experimentally by using of Drop-Weight Tear Test (DWTT). The delamination cracks are produced by the stress perpendicular to the weak interfaces before main crack beginning or accelerating, no new delamination crack is produced during the stabile propagation of fracture. The quantity, splay degree of delamination crack and the space between two delamination cracks are influenced by the stress state of the crack tip at beginning or accelerating point of main crack and the length of delamination crack is influenced by the stress state of the crack tip during the propagation of fracture. The surface of delamination crack is cleavage fracture appearance with large cleavage facet. There is no delamination crack on the brittle fracture surface below the brittle-to-ductile temperature or on the brittle fracture region of mix-mode fracture surface with ductile and brittle region. The part of fracture surfaces with delamination crack ought to be evaluated as the shear area because the delamination cracks are produced only on the ductile fracture surface or on the ductile part of fracture surface.
Authors: Shinichi Nishida, Nobusuke Hattori, Cong Ling Zhou, Akihiro Uchisako
Abstract: This paper is aimed to investigate the effect of roller working on the torsional fatigue properties of a typical low carbon steel referring by the resutls of FEM analysis. Three types of specimens had been prepared with plastic deformation value of 0, 0.5 and 1.0mm, respectively. The main results obtained in this study are as follows: (1) The torsional fatigue strength of roller-worked specimen with 1.0mm plastic deformation is increased more than twice of that of non-rollerworked specimens. (2) Surface hardness of roller worked specimen is much higher than that of the non-roller worked one, and compressed and elongated structure is formed at the notch bottom of the specimen. (3) Crack length along the axial direction of roller worked specimens is longer than that of the non-roller worked specimen, and plural cracks initiated and propagated in the roller worked specimens. (4) The residual stress distribution at the specimen’s notch bottom was analysed using FEM analysis and it is verified the same tendency as the experimental results.
Authors: Yu Jun Zuo, Chun An Tang, Zheng Zhao Liang, Yong Bin Zhang
Abstract: Using newly developed 3 dimensional Rock Failure Process Analysis code RFPA3D, numerical simulations on samples of rock-like material containing pre-existing surface closed flaws under uniaxial compressive loading are conducted to investigate the failure mechanism and crack coalescence modes. Friction in closed flaws is modeled by inserting ideal elasto-plastic materials into the flaws. The simulations replicate most of the phenomena observed in actual experiments, such as initiation and growth of wing and secondary cracks, crack coalescence, and the macro-failure of the sample. For the samples containing three pre-existing surface closed flaws, four different patterns of crack coalescence are obtained in our simulations. The four different patterns of coalescence are the combination of T mode, S mode, TS mode and C mode, i.e. type (C+S mode), (T+S mode),  (S mode) and (C+S mode). A total of four types of samples containing three surface parallel inclined frictional flaws are numerically simulated.
Authors: J.Z. Zhang, Xiao Dong He, X. Song, Shan Yi Du
Abstract: An elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the effect of the compressive loading on crack tip plasticity is presented. Two center-cracked panel specimens with different crack lengths are analysed under tension-compression loading. The size and shape of the crack tip reverse plastic zone, the crack opening profiles of the crack tip for short (0.1 mm) and long crack (2 mm) have been studied. The analysis shows that the compressive loading has a significant contribution towards the crack tip plasticity.
Authors: Deng Pan Qiao, Zong Sheng Zhang, Shu Hong Wang, Ya Bin Zhang
Abstract: This paper presents a study on the quantification of the degree of damage from the microseismic event data, for assessment of excavation damaged zone of anisotropic rock in Jinchuan mine and presents numerical simulation and prediction on the deformation and failure of the rock masses surrounding laneway under rock mass properties and excavating conditions. Following an introduction to the engineering geology and mechanical properties of the rock mass in the Jinchuan mine areas, this paper reveals the features of the measured in situ stresses and puts emphasis on an analysis of the mechanism of underground opening and damage induced by the underground mining. Stress and AE redistribution induced by excavation of underground engineering results in the unloading zone in parts of surrounding rock masses. A micromechanics-based model has been proposed for brittle rock material undergoing irreversible changes of their microscopic structures due to microcrack growth. A systematical numerical modeling analysis method was completed. Based on numerical modelling, a series of predicting curves for rock mass response and deformation are obtained, which provides the basis of guiding the design and construction of anisotropic rock cave in Jinchuan mine. The use of the in situ stress field results in enhanced modeling of the stress concentrations and potential failures at the mines has also been reviewed. Knowledge of the prevailing rock stress field at the mines is a critical component for such modeling which has led to improved rock mechanics understanding and operations at Jinchuan mines.
Authors: Shu Hong Wang, Deng Pan Qiao, Peng Jia, Nan Zhang
Abstract: Rock is a heterogeneous and anisotropic compound material, containing many shear surfaces, cracks, weak surfaces and faults. Damage and failure in a rock mass can occur through sliding along persistent discontinuities, or fractures. A new micromechanical approach to modeling the mechanical behavior of excavation damaged or disturbed zone (EDZ) of anisotropic rock is presented based on knowledge of the inhomogeneity of rock. In this numerical model, damage is analyzed as a direct consequence of microcracks growth. A study of the effect of elastic and failure anisotropy plus inhomogeneity on the underground excavations reveals that the modes of failure can be significantly influenced by the rock structure on the small and large scales. Fractures that develop progressively around underground excavations can be simulated using a numerical code called RFPA (Realistic Failure Process Analysis). This code incorporates the microscopic inhomogeneity in Young’s modulus and strength characteristic of rock. In the numerical models of a rock mass, values of Young’s modulus and rock strength are realized according to a Weibull distribution in which the distribution parameters represent the level of inhomogeneity of the medium. Another notable feature of this code is that no a priori assumptions need to be made about where and how fracture and failure will occur – cracking can occur spontaneously and can exhibit a variety of mechanisms when certain local stress conditions are met. These unique features have made RFPA capable of simulating the whole fracturing process of initiation, propagation and coalescence of fractures around excavations under a variety of loading conditions. The results of the simulations show that the code can be used not only to produce fracturing patterns similar to those reported in previous studies, but also to predict fracturing patterns under a variety of loading conditions. The numerical model was able to reproduce the associated complex stress patterns and the microseismic emission distribution for a variety of rock structural conditions.
Authors: Bao Lin Wang, Jie Cai Han
Abstract: This paper investigates a moving crack in a nonhomogeneous piezoelectric material (NPM) plate. The mechanical and electrical properties of the plate are considered for a class of functional forms for which closed-form expressions for the moving crack tip electromechanical fields are obtained. Effect of material non-homogeneity and crack moving velocity on the crack tip fields are discussed. The crack moving velocity can increase or decrease the stress intensity factor. The cleavage stress, τθz, however, is always an increasing function of crack moving velocity.

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