The present study is concerned with the improvement of hardness and wear resistance in (Cr3C2,CrB)/carbon steel surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation. Two kinds of powder mixtures, 50Cr3C2-50STS304 and 50CrB-50STS304 (wt.%), were placed on a plain carbon steel substrate, which was then irradiated with electron beam. The surface composite layer of 1.0~1.3 mm in thickness was successfully formed without defects, and contained a large amount (up to 58 vol.%) of Cr7C3 or Cr1.65Fe0.35B0.9 particles in the austenite or martensite matrix. The hardness and wear resistance of the surface composites were 2~3 times higher than those of the steel substrate according to hard particles. Particularly, the surface composite fabricated with CrB powders showed excellent wear resistance because selective wear of the matrix was considerably reduced.