This paper presents a high-precision, non-destructive measurement system for determining the thickness and refractive indices of birefringent optical wave plates. Significantly, the proposed method enables the two refractive indices of the optical sample to be measured simultaneously. The performance of the proposed system is verified using a commercial quartz optical wave plate with known refractive indices of 1.5518 e n = and 1.5427 o n = , respectively, and a thickness of 452.1428 μm. The experimentally determined values of the refractive indices are found to be 1.55190 e n = and 1.54281 o n = , respectively, while the thickness is found to be 452.189 μm, corresponding to an experimental error of approximately 0.046 μm. The measurement resolution of the proposed system exceeds that of the interferometer hardware itself and provides a simple yet highly accurate means of measuring the principal optical parameters of birefringent glass wave plates.