Abstract: Freeform optics fabrication has become one of the hottest topics in optics industry in
recent years. Although it still remains a challenge, many have tried different ways of manufacturing
it. Some have achieved degrees of success. By means of a Nanotech 350-FG five axis diamond
turning machine, we too have successfully produced some prototype freeform optics and lens arrays
with Slow Tool Servo and Milling method. The produced freeform optics are mainly for automobile
LED headlamps and the lens arrays are for LED illumination. In order to produce the freeform
optics, we developed our own DT Slow Tool Servo program which is capable of generating a DT
program for diamond turning a universal/general 3D freeform surface. Slow Tool Servo technique
and Diamond Milling technique were mainly employed to produce these freeform surfaces. The
manufacturing process and machining parameter details will be given in the paper. The two main
methods we used will be compared and discussed as well. In measuring the freeform surface, a 3D
white light interferometer was used to scan and obtain the surface coordinates. The software made
by ourselves enabled us to compare the measure results of the work piece with that of the design
drawings. The deviation of our finished forms is within 5 um from that of the nominal. The surface
quality Rq is about 10 nm. Measuring equipment and methodology will also be discussed in the
Abstract: Following the development of the thin-LCD, many researchers have improved the
traditional backlighting module to make it thinner, lighter, and brighter which has already become
the trend. The light guide plate is a very important component in backlighting module. Generally,
the traditional light guide plate (LGP) is made of PMMA material. Injection molding technique is
applied to fabricate the traditional LGP. In this research, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material
was used to make the LGP, which was fabricated by using MEMS technique. In order to modify the
traditional LGP, the micro prisms were constructed on the bottom surface of the PDMS LGP.
Silicon mold was used to define the geometry of the micro-prism. Anisotropic etching technique
was applied to fabricate the prism silicon mold. A liquid PDMS mixture was cast onto the prism
silicon mold and the PDMS LGP was completed. White LED was utilized to be the light source of
the PDMS LGP. After going through the illuminative test, PDMS LGP was demonstrated
successfully of guide light function and its 77% of illuminative uniformity was achieved
requirement of a general v-grooved light guide. The thickness of the PDMS LGP is easy to control
and the PDMS is a heat-resistant and cheap material; therefore, the space and fabrication cost are
saved. The field of MEMS has experienced rapid growth in the recent decade. In the future, the
PDMS LGP can make displays thinner and brighter for thin-LCD applications.
Abstract: The manufacturing of optics is an important field of technology and will serve keymarkets
today and in the future. Nevertheless, the application of complex optical elements is much
restricted today despite of their outstanding functional advantages. Furthermore, the replication of
structured optical components requires high precision molds. Diamond machining processes like
diamond milling and cutting as well as abrasive polishing are appropriate micro-structuring
techniques for optical molds. The combination of these key machining technologies with replication
techniques within closed process chains will open the possibility to produce high precision complex
optical elements as mass-product articles for many optical applications. Important machining
techniques for optical mold manufacture are presented and discussed.
Abstract: Miniaturization is a worldwide trend in manufacturing industry. Though lithography has
been introduced to meet the basic needs, the technology is limited by its process complexity and the
parts geometry to be produced. This research attempted to overcome the above obstacles by
applying laser machining approaches on general 3D micro-parts. The machining model is based on
a layer-by-layer concept. Experimental verification was made on a 1mm stainless steel sheet by
applying a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with Q-switch option. Three main parameters: power,
repetition rate and the speed of laser process were set to optimize the process quality. In the
research round holes with the diameter ranging from 10 μm to 30 μm were drilled. The following
step was the machining of a sloped groove with the area size of 100 μm × 100 μm for validation.
Abstract: When the Neural Network model is used to interpolate the non-circular curves, there are
shortcomings of converging slowly and getting into the local optimum easily. A novel numerical
control interpolation algorithm based on the GA (Genetic Algorithms) and NN (Neural Network)
was introduced for the ultra-precision machining of aspheric surfaces. The algorithm integrated the
global searching of GA with the parallel processing of NN, enhanceed the convergence speed and
found the global optimum. At the end, the quintic non-circular curve was taken as an example to do
the emulation and experiment. The results prove that this algorithm can fit the non-circular curve
accurately, improve the precision of numerical control interpolation and reduce the number of
calculating and interpolation cycles.
Abstract: MEM (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) is the integration system of mechanical
elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a silicon substrate using the micro fabrication
technology, in general. A new MEMS formation technology is proposed in this paper. The
improved drop-on-demand ink jet was used and the MEMS was formed on the plastics and silicon
substrate. The plastics resins were injected from the drop-on-demand head on the substrate and the
dropped resins were cured using ultraviolet rays. Thus micro lenses were formed.
Abstract: In this paper, a new generation method for diamond turning non-axisymmetry aspheric
mirrors is introduced. A rotary arm that carried a diamond tool combined with fast tool servo was
used to replace the straight guides employed by most diamond turning machines. The micro linear
feed of the fast tool servo was real-time calculated with the use of high resolution angular feedback
on the work spindle and the swing tool. Synchronized motion of the fast tool servo according to
rotating angles of the workpiece and the diamond tool produced ultra-precision non-axisymmetry
aspheric surfaces. The corresponding mathematical models of NC program are presented.
Abstract: Grazing incidence optics used in soft X-ray microscopes require supersmooth surface and
highly accurate figure. We considered the fabrication of a Wolter type I mirror, one of grazing
incidence optics, with axial-symmetric inner reflecting surfaces using single-point diamond turning.
Electroless nickel was chosen as reflecting material Cutting conditions for machining the inner
reflecting surface were restricted because of long arm of a single-crystal diamond tool. The
machined Wolter type I mirror had approximately 270 nm P-V in figure error and 3 nm Ra in
surface roughness. The direct-machined Wolter type I mirror could be successfully used in a soft Xray
microscope based on laser-produced X-ray source.
Abstract: This paper discusses the research of optimal process for lightguiding plate of backlight
module of liquid crystal display. The PMMA material was used on lightguiding plate. This paper
indicates that the different processing parameters (mold temperature, injection temperature, first
period injection speed, second period injection speed, third period injection speed, packing pressure
and packing time) are important for optimal research for lightguiding plate of backlight module.
This paper introduces the extension engineering, simulated annealing and genetic algorithm on soft
computing for optimal process and compares the results with experiment. The results show that the
optimal process group is A1 B1C2 D3 E2 F2 G3 for extension engineering, simulated annealing,
genetic algorithm or experiment. The mold temperature is the most important processing parameter
of the flatness of lightguiding plate for soft computing and experiment. The calculation times for
extension engineering, simulated annealing and genetic algorithm are less than experiment’s time.
Abstract: This work used micro dispensing technology to fabricate the master of microlens array,
then uses electroforming technology to replication the Ni mold insert of microlens array and finally
used micro hot embossing to replicate the plastic microlens array. This work used the Si10 resin by
AutoStrade Company for dispensing material. The resin material was exposed to 80W halogen
light. The resin will be hardened and become convex by surface tension effect on exposition. It can
be used as the master of microlens array. This work sputtered a silver layer of 150 nm thick on the
master for conducting electricity layer. The electroforming technology replicateed on the Ni mold
insert from the master of microlens array. Finally, the micro hot embossing technology was used to
replicate the molded microlens array. The molding experiment used PMMA and PC optical film.
The experiment studied the influence of processing parameters of hot embossing by processing
temperature, embossing pressure, embossing time and de-molding temperature. This work used the
Taguchi’s Method to search the best processing parameter for molded microlens array. This work
used the microscope, surface profiler and SEM to measure the surface profile of master, mold insert
and molded microlens array. This work also used AFM to measure the surface roughness of master,
mold insert and molded microlens array. In addition, this work measured the optical strength and
the focal length to discuss optical characteristics of molded microlens array.