Smart concrete technology provides a new alternative way for health monitoring of reinforced concrete structures. In this paper, the piezoresistivity of two kinds of smart concrete filled with carbon black or carbon fiber was studied, and two types of embedded sensors were fabricated using the smart concrete with favorable piezoresistivity. The sensing performance, the measuring methods and the response to environmental temperature and humidity of embedded sensors were investigated. A compensation circuit was incorporated to reduce the effect of temperature and humidity on the output of embedded sensors. The sensors were embedded in concrete beams and columns to monitor the structural compressive strain under field conditions. Experimental results indicate that the embedded sensors fabricated using smart concrete filled with carbon black or carbon fiber feature favorable sensing performance (gauge factors are 55.28 and 138 respectively). The self-sensing concrete components embedded with these sensors can realize the monitoring of their local compressive strain. It therefore can be concluded that the prepared smart concrete and the developed embedded sensors have great potential to be used for health monitoring and damage assessment of concrete structures.