Deterioration of Concrete Freezing-Thawing in Different Salts Solution
The frost resistance of concrete subjected to 3.5% NaCl solution, 5%, 7%, and 10% Na2SO4 solution and seawater were investigated by quick freeze-thaw test. There were two criteria, the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity (RDME) and the mass of scaling, for evaluating the frost resistance of concrete. The results showed that scaling was the main characteristic of deterioration when concrete subjected to freeze-thaw cycles in 3.5% NaCl solution and seawater, whereas RDME had little change. When freezing and thawing in Na2SO4 solution, concrete failed because of internal damage and surfaces of lower strength concrete specimens appeared local swelling and scaling before failure. Concentration of Na2SO4 solution had influence on frost resistance of concrete: deterioration of concrete in 5% or 7% Na2SO4 solution was severe but slower when the concentration reached to 10%. Entraining air into concrete was the best method to improve the durability of concrete subjected to freeze-thaw cycles in all solutions.
Hao-Wen YE and Gai-Fei PENG
Y. Ge et al., "Deterioration of Concrete Freezing-Thawing in Different Salts Solution", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 405-406, pp. 315-321, 2009