Pr-doped ceria solid solutions have attracted much attention as promising mixed electronic-ionic conductor and oxygen storage materials. However, little effort has been made to synthesize Pr-doped ceria with one-dimensional nanostructure. In this paper, Pr-doped ceria nanorods were prepared via a facile hydrothermal method using Pr(NO3)3, Ce(NO3)3 and NaOH as raw materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) indicated that the as-prepared Pr-doped ceria nanorods had a cubic fluorite structure, with the length around 200 ~ 400 nm and the diameters around 10 ~ 18 nm. The effect of alkaline concentration has been systematically studied and the results indicated that higher alkaline concentration was favorable for the formation of nanorods.