The results of development and investigation of computer-vision systems for inspection of the external view of fuel pellets for nuclear fuel elements are presented. The systems developed utilize CCD-cameras to record the images of a fuel pellet’s external view in reflected beams that ensures high contrast of the defects in the picture area. One has developed a database containing images of simulators, as well as real pellets. Tests of an experimental set for fuel pellet inspection have demonstrated its inspection productivity to be 1 pellet per second and its detection probability higher than 95%. The research team has also developed an experimental set with higher inspection productivity (at least 7 pellets per second).