In this study, the preliminary finite element analysis of shot peening was carried out in order to investigate the fundamental mechanism of shot peening for stainless steels. For numerical simulations with high-rate deformation such as shot peening, rate-dependence plasticity models are necessary to get better analysis results. Therefore the stress-strain relation at high-strain rates of austenitic stainless steels were obtained by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests. The parameters of Johnson-Cook plasticity model were determined from the result, and then the finite element analysis of shot peening was carried out using the parameters. Consequently, the compressive residual stress was created beneath the surface of the target but was changed to the tensile residual stress with an increase in the depth.