Laser shock processing (LSP, also known as Laser shock peening) is applied by using a high energy pulsed laser to create a high amplitude stress wave or shock wave on the surface to be treated. LSP is proved to be superior to conventional treatments such as shot peening in many engineering products. This paper focuses on Laser shock processing and its effects on mechanical properties of material AISI 8620 alloys steel. Experiment results indicated that compared with base material, the surface hardness increased by 13.8%, and compressive residual stress increased by 521%. Statistical method was introduced to analyze hardness and residual stress change before and after the LSP.