Abstract: Thermal distortions are regarded as one of major error factors in a machine tool. ISO 230-3  describes tests to evaluate the influence of thermal distortions caused by linear motion and spindle rotation on the tool center position (TCP). No test is described in these standards on the thermal influence of a rotary axis. Furthermore, conventional thermal tests only measure thermal influence on the positioning error at a single point, not error motions of an axis. This paper proposes a method to calibrate thermal influence on error motions of rotary axes in five-axis kinematics by the static R-test. The R-test measurement clarifies how error motions of a rotary table changes with the rotation of a swiveling axis, and how error motions are influenced by thermal changes. Experimental demonstration will be presented.
Abstract: This study has devised a tool insert with micro built-in thermocouples in order to establish a cutting-temperature measuring method for practical use. This tool insert possesses seven pairs of micro Cu/Ni film thermocouple near the cutting edge on the rake face. In this study, Cu film and Ni film were deposited in the micro grooves corresponding to a circuit pattern of the micro thermocouple by means of electroless plating and electroplating. This paper shows the results of the investigation concerning the electrical properties of the micro Cu/Ni film thermocouples. The influence of the current density in electroplating on the electrical resistivity of the films was examined. The characteristic of the Seebeck property of the micro Cu/Ni film thermocouple was investigated in a temperature difference of up to 600 K with a heating apparatus developed. The Seebeck coefficient of the micro Cu/Ni film thermocouple was smaller by 28 % than that of a Cu/Ni wire thermocouple. The result implies that the degradation in the Seebeck property of the micro Cu/Ni film thermocouple derives from an existence of an impurity between Cu film and Ni film in the hot junction.
Abstract: We have recently developed a THz near-field microscope with an ultrahighly sensitive detector, CSIP (charge-sensitive infrared phototransistor). The microscope probes spontaneous evanescent field on samples derived from local phenomena and the signal origin from metals was previously revealed to be thermal charge/current fluctuations. The intensity of passive near-field signal is very well consistent with Bose-Einstein distribution, which corresponds to the sample temperature. In this study, we demonstrate nano-thermometry with the microscope by monitoring passive near-field signals on a biased NiCr pattern. The obtained signals correspond to the local temperature and the result shows that the inner side of the line curve is much brighter than outer side. It can be easily interpreted by Kirchhoff’s law. The spatial resolution is 60 nm, which cannot be experimentally achieved by any other optical thermometry. This demonstration strongly suggests that our microscope is very well suited for real-time temperature mapping of complicated circuit patterns, and others like bio-samples.
Abstract: A deign study of a thermal-type contact sensor for the detection of small defects, the heights of which are less than 16 nm on the wafer surface, is described in this paper. The feasibility of the contact sensor, which would detect frictional heat generated at the contact with defects, was theoretically investigated focusing on the temperature rise of the sensor element. To investigate the temperature rise of the contact sensor due to the generated frictional heat, both the theoretical calculation with simple model of heat transfer and a simulation with a finite element model (FEM) was carried out. Relationship between the sensor size and the response of the temperature rise of the contact sensor was also investigated by using FEM simulation.
Abstract: High-speed inspection of individual deviations (profile, helix, pitch) in mass-produced gear workshops is a problem. This paper introduces the measuring principle of pitch deviations evaluated through the double-flank gear rolling test for fast inspection in gear workshops, during which the displacement of rack probe in radial & tangential direction is measured when the work-piece is meshing with the rack probe in double-flank.
Abstract: This paper presents the dynamic response of an air-bearing displacement sensor for on-machine surface form measurement of micro structures. The on-machine measurement system has some merits in terms of measurement efficiency and re-machining for error compensation after measurement. On the other hand, the performance of the contact type measurement system based on stylus methods is dominated by the dynamic characteristics of the system because the system is subject to random vibrations of the machine tool including the spindle during measurement. Therefore, the dynamic response of the system is useful for analyzing the mechanical vibrations of the practical on-machine measurement system. In this paper, the equation of motion for the air-bearing displacement sensor to the excited input displacement is derived and the displacement behavior of the system by using a PZT actuator is investigated within certain frequency ranges experimentally for identifying the dynamics of the system.
Abstract: The development of a high-speed nanoprofiler is essential for developing the next generation of ultraprecision aspheric mirrors. The purpose of this study is to develop a new high-speed nanoprofiler that traces the normal vector of an aspheric mirror surface. The method of measurement adopted here is based upon the accuracy of a rotation goniometer. In order to attain a form measurement accuracy of PV1nm, it is necessary to improve the angle measurement accuracy. In this study, we equip a nanoprofiler with a rotary encoder that is calibrated in order to accomplish this objective, using a national standard machine. Consequently, this rotary encoder can be calibrated with an accuracy of ±0.12 μrad when considering the influence of installing the encoder on the nanoprofiler.
Abstract: This paper describes the analysis and measurement of the dynamic motions of a large-scale rotating roll workpiece, which is used for a large-scale lathe, under the gravity condition. A dynamic model which includes the gravity effect was first established. In order to investigate the behavior which comes from stiffness differences of the journal bearing at the headstock and the tailstock, a spring-mass-damper system was also established. In addition to the simulations, the behavior of the rotating roll workpiece was investigated with respect to the different rotating speed. In the experiment, a mirror finished hollow type roll workpiece with a diameter of 320 mm, a length of 1800 mm, a weight of about 340 kg was fabricated by a large-scale lathe. Five capacitive type displacement sensors were mounted on the sensor holders which were arranged along the axis of rotation of the spindle. The behavior measurement was carried out at 5 sections of the roll workpiece along the axial direction. The rotating speed was set to be 5, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 rpm. The dynamic model for the analysis with simulations and the measurement result of the behavior of a rotating roll workpiece according to the different rotating speed are presented in this paper.
Abstract: An eccentric error compensation method is presented for the pitch deviation measurement of gears. The eccentric error compensation method mainly consists of the evaluation of the assembly accuracy, the reconstruction of the reference curve and the coordinate compensation of intersection points. The geometrical model of the measurement system was analyzed and the corresponding mathematical model was proposed. A gear with small modulus was adopted as the specimen for the pitch deviation measurement. Experimental results reveal that the values of eccentricity can be extracted from the measured profile successfully and the eccentric error compensation is effective for the pitch deviation measurement of gears.
Abstract: A form error characterization of a reflective-type scale grating, which is used in three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) encoders for position measurement of a planar motion stage, is presented. The scale grating has a micro-structured surface, the pitch of which is 1 µm in both X- and Y- direction. The periodic pattern on the scale grating generates diffracted beams when a laser beam incidents to the grating surface. The ±1st order diffracted beams from the grating contain information about the stage motions of not only X- or Y- directional in-plane displacement but also Z-directional out-of-plane displacement, and are therefore able to be utilized for multi-axis position detection. Accuracies of the position detection are mainly determined by a period deviation and a Z-directional out-of-flatness of the scale grating. The form error characterization of the grating is possible by using Fizeau interferometer, although the form error of a reference mirror in the Fizeau interferometer still remains as a measurement error in the form of the measured scale grating. In this paper, a new method was proposed to evaluate the form error characterization of the scale grating for the 3-DOF encoder, while eliminating the form error of the reference mirror in the Fizeau interferometer.