Electromigration Induced Metal Dissolution in Flip-Chip Solder Joints
The failure of flip chip solder joints through the dissolution of the Cu metallization was studied. From the location and geometry of the dissolved Cu, it can be concluded that current crowding played a critical role in the dissolution. It can also be concluded that temperature, as an experimental variable, is not less import than the current density in electromigration study. Experimentally, no evidence of mass transport due to thermomigration was observed.
Z.Y. Zhong, H. Saka, T.H. Kim, E.A. Holm, Y.F. Han and X.S. Xie
Y.H. Lin et al., "Electromigration Induced Metal Dissolution in Flip-Chip Solder Joints", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 475-479, pp. 2655-2658, 2005