Determination of the Constants of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Sintered Magnets with Uniaxial Texture
The usual process for producing the high energy magnets based on rare-earth-transition metals as for example NdFeB, SmCo5 or Sm(CoFeCuZr)z involves powder metallurgy. In many cases, it is necessary the determination of anisotropy constants (K1 – first order and K2 second order) from polycrystalline samples. This is not the ideal situation because for more accurate determinations a single crystal is necessary. Nevertheless, in many cases it is very difficult, or not possible, obtaining a single crystal. Then, for these situations, the anisotropy constants can be evaluated from polycrystalline samples with uniaxial texture. In this study, the methodology for making such determination is described. It includes the measurement of Schulz Pole figure by X-Ray diffraction in a surface perpendicular to the c-axis, the axis of easy magnetization. The measured Pole figure can be adjusted with a Gaussian distribution f(q)=exp(-q2/2s2) or with a distribution of type f(q) = cosn q. A model to evaluate the remanence from quantitative metallography is also described. From these distributions, and using the microstructural model, it is possible to estimate the initial magnetization curves for polycrystalline samples, including the effect of the 2nd order anisotropy constant (K2) which produces a curvature in initial magnetization curve. With all these data it is finally possible to estimate the initial magnetization curves for single crystal samples (theoretical), and the anisotropy constants K1 and K2. The inadequacy of Sucksmith-Thompson plots for determination of anisotropy constants from polycrystalline samples is also commented. The described method can be used either for rare-earth transition magnets or for Barium or Strontium ferrites.
Lucio Salgado and Francisco Ambrozio Filho
M. F. de Campos "Determination of the Constants of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Sintered Magnets with Uniaxial Texture", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 498-499, pp. 134-140, 2005