Motion of Fine Particles under Interfacial Tension Gradient in Relation to Solidification of Steel
It is important to understand the behavior of argon gas bubbles and non-metallic inclusions in front of the solidifying shell in order to improve the surface quality of steel products, in the steelmaking industry. Based on a series of fundamental researches on the motion of fine particles under the interfacial tension gradient, Mukai and Lin  proposed a new mechanism wherein the solute concentration gradient in front of the solidifying shell, which is the interfacial tension gradient between liquid steel and particles, plays an important role in the entrapment of argon gas bubbles and non-metallic inclusions by the solidifying shell in continuous casting of steel. Developing this idea, this paper proposes Mukai-value M for use in estimating the dependence of the interfacial gradient force required to entrap the particles on solute concentrations of steel. Use of this index enables rapid quantitative prediction of the behavior of argon gas bubbles and non-metallic inclusions in the continuous casting of steel.
A Roósz, M. Rettenmayr and Z. Gácsi
K. Mukai et al., "Motion of Fine Particles under Interfacial Tension Gradient in Relation to Solidification of Steel ", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 508, pp. 211-220, 2006