Evaluation of Biaxial Forming Limits by Bulge Testing
Finite element modelling of sheet-forming operations, such as pressure-ram-forming, (PRF™) requires knowledge of forming limits under biaxial strain conditions. In this work, elliptical bulge tests have been used to evaluate the forming limits of an aluminum bodystock alloy, X309, that is used for PRF™ applications. Limiting dome heights have been determined as a function of pressure-rate and temperature. All tests have been done with the rolling direction, RD, of the sheet aligned with the major axis of the bulge.
W.J. Poole, M.A. Wells and D.J. Lloyd
S.R. MacEwen et al., "Evaluation of Biaxial Forming Limits by Bulge Testing", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 519-521, pp. 117-124, 2006