Bulk Ultrafine and Nanostructured Materials from Consolidation of Particles by Back Pressure Equal Channel Angular Pressing
Severe plastic deformation (SPD) has received considerable attention for its capability to produce ultrafine and nano structured materials. On the one hand, SPD, especially in the forms of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and high pressure torsion (HPT) is able to refine bulk materials with coarse grain structures. On the other hand, SPD has been used to synthesise bulk materials from particles. It enables particles from nano to micro scales to be consolidated into fully dense materials at much lower temperatures and shorter times, compared to the conventional sintering processing. It is particularly relevant to consolidating particles with non-equilibrium microstructures and to producing complex multiphase alloys. In this summary, ECAP as an effective process to synthesise a range of light metal based materials from particles with various sizes and structures, including aluminium and aluminium composites, titanium and magnesium, will be demonstrated. Full density and good bonding are achieved easily with the application of a back pressure. Microstructures from nano to ultrafine scales have been produced, resulting in significantly enhanced strength. Simultaneous increase in ductility has also been achieved in some alloys by virtue of multi-scale structures.
Yuri Estrin and Hans Jürgen Maier
K. Xia et al., "Bulk Ultrafine and Nanostructured Materials from Consolidation of Particles by Back Pressure Equal Channel Angular Pressing", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 584-586, pp. 119-126, 2008