Capabilities of synthesizing new structural and functional materials by SPS processing were indicated by exemplifying the synthesis of nano-structured alumina with high bending strength or high transparency, Al/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity and zirconia(3Y)/ SUS410L FGM. In the synthesis of alumina, the bending strength of more than 720MPa was attained by choosing suitable SPS conditions. It was also indicated that SPS processing could easily synthesize Al/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity of more than 400W/(m･K), suggesting elaborate control of interface between Al and diamond in SPS consolidation. Further, zirconia(3Y)/SUS410L FGM could easily be fabricated by SPS. Mechanical weakness in the zirconia(3Y)-rich layers of the FGM was shown from the analysis of stress state based on Raman scattering method. It is suggested that the designing of the layer staking in FGM based on the Raman scattering analysis is effective for the improvement of the weakness in the FGM.