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Authors: Horst E. Friedrich, Philipp Steinle, Gerhard Kopp, Roland Schöll
Abstract: The history of terrestrial transport systems on road and rail has always been influenced by material-related developments. These developments gave rise to various construction methods, taking into account the different requirements that transport systems had to fulfil and providing new approaches. The urgency of the CO2 problem will result in alternative power trains also establishing themselves on the market, in turn giving rise to new requirements and possibilities in the field of vehicle construction, over and above the established light weight design. Further development of materials is supported and supplemented by new material systems able to actively respond to the particular state of the system.
Authors: Maryse Touzin, P. Chevallier, Stéphane Turgeon, Paula Horny, Diego Mantovani
Abstract: Commonly made of 316L stainless steel and nitinol, metallic intravascular stents are medical devices used to scaffold a biological lumen, most often diseased arteries. While stenting procedures reduce the risk of restenosis, they do not eliminate it completely. Furthermore, other common complications observed are thrombosis, inflammation and corrosion of the stents. The corrosion of the device is induced by blood flow which provokes a degradation of its mechanical properties and leads to a high risk of release of potentially toxic metallic compounds, such as nickel-based oxides and metal ions. To lower these clinical complication rates and to prevent the corrosion of the metallic stent structure, coated stents have been developed during the last decade. Indeed, the coating is expected to improve the surface biocompatibility and corrosion resistance without compromising the stainless steel mechanical properties required for the stent implantation. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already provided guidance on a series of non-clinical test protocols, methods and reports to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of intravascular stents. Properties such as the stability, durability, and adhesion of a stent coating, prior and after deployment, must be clearly assessed to demonstrate its efficiency. This study wants to evaluate the effectiveness against general and local corrosion of an ultra-thin fluorocarbon film deposited by plasma on pre-treated stainless steel. Cyclic polarization tests were used to measure the coating capacity to protect the substrate from localized corrosion and Tafel plot corrosion measurements were used to evaluate the general corrosion behaviour of uncoated and coated, flat and deformed samples.
Authors: Mitsuo Niinomi, Masaaki Nakai, Toshikazu Akahori, Harumi Tsutsumi
Abstract: Negative thermal expansion, i.e. a type of shrinkage that occurs during heating, was observed in cold-rolled Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy (mass%) (TNTZ). The reduction ratio of cold rolling was systematically changed, and then the thermal expansion rate was measured using a dilatometer. The cyclicity of thermal expansion was also examined for the cold-rolled TNTZ. Further, the effect of oxygen content on the thermal expansion behavior of the cold rolled TNTZ was examined. With an increase in the reduction ratio of cold rolling, the thermal expansion rate of TNTZ cold-rolled parallel to the rolling direction (RD) decreases, but it increases in TNTZ cold-rolled parallel to the transverse direction (TD). The cyclicity of above-mentioned anomalous thermal expansion is observed in a temperature range below 473 K, but it is not observed when the specimen is heated to above 573 K in the first cycle. The oxygen suppresses the negative thermal expansion behavior of TNTZ.
Authors: Roberto Montanari, Nadia Ucciardello
Abstract: The paper briefly examines the metallurgical effects of shock waves on different metals. Two points are then specifically addressed. The first one regards how X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be usefully employed to get exhaustive information about the microstructure of a shock loaded metal. The second point concerns the mechanisms of martensitic transformation in alloys such as AISI 304 when submitted to repeated explosive deformations.
Authors: Christian S. Paglia
Abstract: The influence of short-term heat treatments on the environmental cracking and impact properties of a 7050-T7451 friction stir weld were investigated. Prisms, cut transverse to the welding direction, were exposed for minutes at temperatures between 100 oC and 800 oC in an oven or exposed to a propane torch flame and/or water / air quenched. A significant increase in the environmental cracking resistance (ductility ratio from 0.2 to 0.9) was observed for samples exposed to temperatures below the solutionizing limit, but between 240 oC and 280 oC. The fracture location changed from the “soft” heat affected zones to the nugget. Furthermore, the weld exhibited a decrease in the Charpy impact adsorbed energy as compared to the weld unaffected parent metal. An increase in the temperature improved the adsorbed energy, while a temperature decrease promoted the brittleness and reduced the adsorbed energy. The flow contours, also called onion ring bands, present within the nugget, represented a preferential fracture path during impact. The high temperature treatments followed by water quenching did not significantly improved the resistance to impact.
Authors: Terry R. McNelley, Srinivasan Swaminathan, E. Sarath Menon, J.Q. Su
Abstract: Parameters for multi-pass FSP include the pattern of tool traverse and step-over distance between successive passes. Multi-pass FSP was conducted on as-cast NiAl bronze and as-cast AA5083 in order to modify stir zone (SZ) microstructures and mechanical properties. Highly refined and homogeneous SZ microstructures may be produced by FSP. Refined and equiaxed grain structures reflect recrystallization during FSP; mechanisms leading to homogenization by redistribution of microstructure constituents remain to be determined. Refined microstructures exhibit enhanced ambient-temperature properties and superplasticity at elevated temperatures.

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