CET by Fragmentation during the Solidification under Natural and Forced Convection of Non-Refined Al-Based Alloys
The columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) has been widely studied for many years  because this phenomenon is observed in metallurgical applications like castings. In non refined alloys, detachment of dendrite fragments is the most probable mechanism responsible for the formation of an equiaxed microstructure . In this frame, melt convection influences the grain structure evolution by playing a role in the fragmentation phenomena .
A. Roósz, V. Mertinger, P. Barkóczy and Cs. Hoó
H.J. Jung et al., "CET by Fragmentation during the Solidification under Natural and Forced Convection of Non-Refined Al-Based Alloys", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 649, pp. 343-348, 2010