The influence of silicon on the spheroidization of cementite in hypereutectoid 1.0C-1.45Cr bearing steels has been investigated, on the basis of microstructural analysis and thermodynamic calculations. The silicon content was varied 0.25 to 2.00 in weight percent. Annealed at 790∼850°C for 6 hr, the 0.25Si and 1.00Si steels were entirely spheroidized at 790°C, while 1.50Si and 2.00Si steels at 830°C, respectively. This implies that the increase of silicon content in hypereutectoid steels retards the spheoridization of cementite. The thermodynamic calculations revealed that silicon atoms were partitioned into not cementite but austenite at annealing temperatures, and the increase of silicon content can raise the chemical potential of carbon atoms within austenite at austenite/cementite interfaces, causing the decrease of driving force for the diffusion of carbon atoms from cementite to austenite.