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Authors: Akinobu Shibata, Shigekazu Morito, Tadashi Furuhara, Tadashi Maki
Abstract: This study investigated the substructure evolution in lenticular martensite. The substructure of lenticular martensite changes from fine transformation twins in the midrib and twinned region to a high density of dislocations in the untwinned region during growth. On the basis of careful observation of the morphology and substructure of midrib and examination of the stress-induced growth behavior of thin plate martensite, we concluded that the midrib in lenticular martensite is thin plate martensite itself. Tangled and curved dislocations appeared near the martensite-austenite boundary of the untwinned region in Fe-33Ni and in the entire untwinned region in Fe-31Ni, because the martensite inherited the accommodation dislocations in the surrounding austenite. The difference of Ms temperature causes the difference in the substructure between Fe-33Ni and Fe-31Ni. The higher Ms temperature of Fe-31Ni induces the plastic deformation of the surrounding austenite at an earlier stage of transformation, resulting in the appearance of tangled and curved dislocations in the entire untwinned region.
Authors: Tadashi Furuhara, Hayato Saito, Goro Miyamoto, Tadashi Maki
Abstract: Orientation relationships of proeutectoid ferrite formed at an austenite grain boundary with respect to adjacent austenite grains were investigated by means of electron backscatter diffraction in an isothermally transformed Fe-1.5Mn-0.2C (mass%) alloy. A grain bounadry ferrite holds nearly the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship with some small misorientation against at least one of the adjacent austenite grains. There is strong variant selection by the austenite grain boundary for ferrite nucleation. At a higher transformation temperature, the fraction of ferrites holding a near K-S relationship with respect to the opposite austenite grain is lower. As the transformation temperature becomes lower, the misorientation from the K-S relationship becomes smaller against the near K-S related austenite grain whereas the misorientation against the irrationally oriented austenite grain becomes larger.
Authors: Setsuo Takaki
Abstract: Yielding of polycrystalline low carbon steel is characterized by a clear yield point followed by unstable Lüders deformation and such a yielding behavior is taken over to fine grained steel with the grain size of 1μm or less. Yield strength of ferritic steel is increased with grain refinement standing on the Hall-Petch relation. The following equation is realized up to 0.2μm grain size in the relation between yield strength y and grain size d: y [MPa]= 100+600×d[μm]-1/2. In low carbon steel, it might be concluded that the Hall-Petch coefficient (ky) is around 600MPa•μm1/2. However, the ky value of interstitial free steels is substantially small as 130-180MPa•μm1/2 and it can be greatly increased by a small amount of solute carbon less than 20ppm. It was also cleared that the disappearance of yield point by purifying is due to the decrease in the ky value. On the other hand, the ky value is changeable depending on heat treatment conditions such as cooling condition from an elevated temperature and aging treatment at 90°C. These results suggest the contribution of carbon segregation at grain boundary in terms of the change in the ky value. On the contrary, substitutional elements such as Cr and Si do not give large influence to the ky value in comparison with the effect by carbon.
Authors: Rian J. Dippenaar
Abstract: The automotive industry is increasingly utilizing advanced high-strength steels, primarily to reduce the mass of motor vehicles. However, many of these steels fall within the peritectic composition range, which are notoriously difficult to cast by continuous casting techniques. Against this background, a brief review is given of our current understanding of the peritectic reaction as such and the subsequent peritectic phase transformations.
Authors: Michael K. Miller, David T. Hoelzer, Kaye F. Russell
Abstract: The high temperature and irradiation response of a new class of nanostructured ferritic alloys have been investigated by atom probe tomography. These materials are candidate materials for use in the extreme environments that will be present in the next generation of power generating systems. Atom probe tomography has revealed that the yttria powder is forced into solid solution during the mechanical alloying process andsubsequently 2-nm-diameter Ti-, Y- and O-enriched nanoclusters are formedduring the extrusion process. These nanoclusters have been shown to be remarkably stable during isothermal annealing treatments up to 0.92 of the melting temperature and during proton irradiation up to 3 displacements per atom. No significant difference in sizes, compositions and number densities of the nanoclusters was also observed between the unirradiated and proton irradiated conditions. The grain boundaries were found to have high number densities of nanoclusters as well as chromium and tungsten segregation which pin the grain boundary to minimize creep and grain growth.
Authors: Wen Quan Cao, Cun Yu Wang, Jie Shi, Han Dong
Abstract: In this study Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) as proposed by Speer was applied to improve the ductility of C-Mn high strength Low Alloy steel (HSLAs). Microstructural observations revealed a multiphase microstructure including first martensite, fresh martensite and retained austenite in the Q&P processed steel. During tensile process, the austenite volume fraction gradually decreased with strain increasing, suggesting the phase transformation induced plasticity for the Q&P processed steel. Ultrahigh strength about 1300-1800MPa and tensile elongation about 20% were obtained after Q&P processing at specific conditions, which is significant higher than that of ~10% of conventional martensitic steel. The the product of tensile strength to total elongation increased from 25 to 35GPa% with increasing carbon content in studied steel. This improved mechanical properties were related to the ductility contribution from TRIP effects of the retained austenite and strength contribution from the hard martensitic matrix. At last it was turned out that the Q&P process is a promising way to produce ultrahigh strength steel with relative high ductility under tailored heat treatment conditions for different micro-alloyed carbon steel.
Authors: Timothy D. Bigg, David Edmonds
Abstract: The novel non-equilibrium heat treatment procedure known as Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) may offer the prospect of higher strength steel products with enhanced formability based upon martensitic microstructures containing controlled quantities of carbon-enriched retained austenite. The Q&P process requires an interrupted quench and isothermal annealing (partitioning) step at intermediate temperatures, whereby untransformed austenite can be thermodynamically stabilised by carbon migration from supersaturated martensite regions. The concept is comparable to that producing carbide-free bainite, for example, in TRIP-assisted steel, although Q&P allows separation of the ferrite formation and austenite enrichment stages of the process. However, although the Q&P concept is readily understood, evolution of the microstructure during interrupted quenching and partitioning has been inferred indirectly from dilatometer studies and metallographic examination after final quenching to room temperature. Consequently, a model alloy was developed in which the sequential steps of heat treatment could be separated for direct inspection by conventional metallography, X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction techniques.
Authors: Ying Wang, Shu Zhou, Zheng Hong Guo, Yong Hua Rong
Abstract: According to the design principle of microstructures for high strength steel and a new quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) process recently proposed by Hsu, a microalloying Fe-Mn-Si base steel by the Q-P-T process has been designed. The results indicate that the Q-P-T steel exhibits ultra-high tensile strength combining with good ductility and toughness, and it is a new family of advanced high-strength steels. The microstructures of samples by different Q-P-T processes were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and the relation between microstructures and mechanical properties was analyzed

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