The groove design for creating ultrafine-grained low-carbon steel through a caliber rolling process was studied from the viewpoint of the large strain accumulation and cross-sectional shape variation in a bar. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was employed for this purpose. The caliber rolling process of foval (flat-like-oval)/square type was proposed as a method to efficiently introduce a large strain in material. The relationship among the foval configuration, strain, and cross-sectional shape was examined in the caliber rolling. The influence of the equivalent strain distribution by 1st pass (foval rolling) depends strongly on the strain distribution and a cross-sectional shape by 2nd pass, and the foval configuration to accumulate a large strain efficiently was shown. The optimum pass schedule to fabricate a 13mm square bar of ultrafine-grained steel from a 24 mm square bar by caliber rolling at warm working temperatures was proposed.