The relationship between the oxide inclusions and the Heat-affected-zone (HAZ) toughness of microalloying steels has been investigated. The low carbon steels are smelted with special oxide introduction technique and the properties of HAZ has been studied with thermo-simulation. The optical microscope and SEM were used to analyze the size, composition and distribution of the inclusions, the mechanical properties after thermo-simulation was also analyzed. The results show that the inclusions in steel are mainly Ti and Al oxide with MnS, these complex inclusions are well distributed and the size is less than 3 micron. Microstructure of HAZ consists of intragranular acicular ferrite (IAF), intergranular ferrite and small amount of lath bainite while the cooling time during the phase formation is short. After the thermo simulation with the cooling time between 800°C and 500°C (t8/5) increasing the toughness of HAZ decreased and the size of prior austenite grain increased. Inclusions which located near the prior austenite grain boundary couldn’t induce the nucleation of IAF, only the ones inside the prior austenite grain can promote IAF’s growth.