Shot peening is a surface treatment that improves the performance of engineering components. In conventional shot peening, the medium consists of small spheres, which are usually made of high-carbon cast steel; the diameter of the spheres is in the range from 0.3 to 1.2mm. More recently, however, a new type of microshot has been developed to enhance the peening effect. The diameter of the spheres in the new medium is in the range from 0.02 to 0.15mm. In the present study, the effect of microshot peening on the surface characteristics of spring steel was investigated. The injection method of the microshot was of the compressed air type. The microshots of 0.1mm diameter were high-carbon cast steel and cemented carbide, and the workpiece used was the commercially spring steel JIS-SUP10. The surface roughness, hardness and compressive residual stress of the peened workpieces were measured. The surface layer of the workpieces was sufficiently deformed by microshot peening. A high hardness or residual stress was observed near the surface. The use of hard microshots such as cemented carbide was found to cause a significantly enhanced peening effect for spring steel.