Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is used to convert coarse grain into ultrafine grain (UFG). The characteristics of ECAP and the shearing patterns obtained when ECAP applied to metals are investigated. Then propose a series of procedures to verify the structure evolution of AZ31 Mg alloys after ECAP processing. The results indicate that parameters including route, die angular and pressing passes influence on the microstructure of the AZ31 Mg alloys. Route BC is the optimum processing route due to the largest slipping angular range.