This paper summarizes the development of the research and application of ion implantation biotechnology on plant, animal and microorganism varieties Improvement, and it also includes the contemporary effects and utilization of ion implantation, and the application of ion implantation on trans-gene plant. In 1980s, cooperated with Anhui Academy of Agriculture Sciences, the ion implantation was applied for crops’ improvement by Plasma Physics Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and made greater progress in both practice and theory, which attracted many scholars inside and outside. By using ion implantation, extensive researches had been made in different materials including plant, animal and microorganism on different levels. With combination of physics and biology, as a new cross subject and a unique technology system, the ion implantation biotechnology came into being, and created more dramatically economic and social benefit in crops improvement by transferring exogenous gene. This paper summarizes the development of the research and application of ion implantation biotechnology.