Mechatronic Systems and Materials VI

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Authors: Mirosław Pajor, Kamil Stateczny
Abstract: Modern CNC machine tools constitute advanced mechatronic systems. Numerous works are undertaken on the development of new intelligent control systems for CNC machine tools [1–5] equipped with unique diagnostic systems. One of the development directions of CNC control systems is exploring new forms and techniques of operator-machine communication as well as new, simpler machine tool programming procedures. Nowadays, there are many techniques for programming CNC machine tools [6], [7]. These techniques have taken a variety of forms both due to historical limits of technology and various environmental requirements. Despite the existence of complex control systems for operation and programming CNC machine tools or CAD/CAM systems facilitating the generation of a machining strategy for complicated elements, there is a demand for machine tools that are easier to operate, and therefore do not require advanced programming skills for operation.
Authors: Mirosław Pajor, Jacek Zapłata
Abstract: The paper presents a compensation system of thermal deformation for conventional feed axes applied in CNC machine tools allowing for an effective reduction in the impact of heat generated during its operation on the positioning accuracy of the axis. The result has been achieved by equipping feed screws with thermistor temperature sensors. Wiring sensors was led out through an axial bore in the screw and through a rotating electrical connector to an acquisition device coupled with the control system of the CNC machine. An algorithm based on neural networks was implemented in the machine control system, which allows for the online calculation and compensation of heat deformation of feed screws. The algorithm takes into account a variation of thermal deformation values as a function of the table position and the current distribution of the temperature field of the screw and machine. The paper presents a user-friendly method for implementing algorithms containing neural networks in the machine control system. The proposed compensation method has been verified by measuring the linear accuracy of the feed axis positioning. The obtained results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in reducing the impact of thermal deformation errors on the positioning accuracy of the axis in CNC machine tools.
Authors: Mirosław Pajor, Marek Grudziński
Abstract: The presented innovative vision system is a new solution for quick matching the workpiece reference point using non-contact 3D scanning method, based on structural light patterns [1, 2]. The vision system uses special reference markers [3] and flexible calibration procedure [4] in order to integrate with the CNC machine workspace. Based on 3D geometry of the workpiece, placed on CNC table, the new object coordinate system for tooling process is precisely aligned.At present, the system is in the final phase of laboratory tests confirmed its functionality. In this paper, the results of several tests for 3D scanning quality, scanning recurrence and for positioning recurrence using CNC table will be presented. All the most critical stages of integration with CNC machine will be showed and discussed. The obtained results revealed far improvement in terms of time and simplicity of use, as well as good stability of the system.
Authors: Jan Przybylski, Andrzej Majcher, Mirosław Neska
Abstract: The construction of technological test stands is connected with the problem of a proper determination of the structure of the stands enabling the execution of technological processes with different types of instruments and devices. The article presents the test stand for Plasma–Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition (PA-PVD) technological processes. The configurability of the stand was achieved thanks to the modular structure of the stand and the use of appropriate software and hardware solutions. The authors describe the developed solution facilitating the execution of plasma processes applied for surface engineering.
Authors: Roma Rinkevičienė, Benas Kundrotas, Sonata Tolvaišienė
Abstract: Matlab/Simulink model of six-phase induction motor in synchronous reference frame is presented. The simulation results of torque and speed starting transients are obtained and discussed.
Authors: Jacek Salach, Roman Szewczyk, Adam Bieńkowski, Michał Nowicki
Abstract: The paper presents the possibility of using amorphous materials as cores of tensile stress sensors. Application of thermal annealing of the core to increase magnetoelastic sensitivity is presented. Important parts of measuring system are the signal processing circuit of the sensor and the sensor control system. The results of measurements of the characteristics of the sensors with signal processing circuit are presented.
Authors: Dariusz Sędziak, Roman Regulski
Abstract: Electrohydraulic servo drives can be found in many industrial applications. A typical design of a servovalve uses the known torque motor. The main concept of designing the modification of the servovalve described in the paper was concern about the application of a piezobender as an actuator, working between nozzles as a flapper, at a control stage. The paper presents and investigates the design of a power amplifier for piezobenders and a digital controller for an electrohydraulic servo valve with a piezobender element. The article shows and discusses the main concept of design and the results of experimental investigation.
Authors: Andrzej Zbrowski, Tomasz Samborski, Jan Przybylski
Abstract: The paper presents the structure of a control system incorporated into a process line for the production of documents secured with RFID labels. The line enables a flexible and easy manufacture of goods with different shapes and sizes in a low-cost experimental production undertaken to meet the needs of continuing improvement of prototypes and short series of innovative products with increased durability and higher level of security, which is possible to be obtained due to the application of electronic and graphical protection systems [1]. The line is intended for the assembly of multilayer documents. The documents are made of a raw stock in form of paper web, an RFID inlay and a protective film which all are glued together with the use of cold gluing and hot-melt techniques or in which a transfer tape with an adhesive film is applied. The tape and the elements mounted on it are transported and stopped by drive modules, whereas maintenance procedures are executed by actuators. These modules initiate proper strain of the tape, and as a result the material is flattened and a stable distance between the elements mounted on it is preserved. In the case of a start-stop operation and close distances between individual guide rollers, a proper tape strain and the time-space synchronization of all the modules constitute an important aspect of the control over the flexible technological system.
Authors: Andrzej Zbrowski, Andrzej Majcher, Mirosław Neska
Abstract: The article presents the structure of a control system installed in a series of test devices for durability tests intended for different types of documents, i.e. cards or book that are electronically secured with RFID labels. In the system in question, the test methods simulate typical document manual handling and therefore enable the determination of the influence of mechanical loads on the technical condition of the document, and the possibility to read the data stored in it. To make the execution of tests possible according to defined standards, a set of necessary components of the control system responsible for control, communication and actuator functions was developed. The objective of the tasks undertaken was to develop the structure of a control system, in which all designed test devices would be included, and to which additional apparatus could be added. The designed structure of the control system enables the application of numerous components of the same type in all test devices under one control. The developed control system is composed of basic modules included in every device and configurable modules selected individually for each type of tests.
Authors: Sergei Zhigailov, Artem Kuznetcov, Victor Musalimov, Gennady Aryassov
Abstract: It is necessary to analyze human gait for treatment and rehabilitation of human with musculoskeletal disorders of the locomotion apparatus (LA). The main goal of this work is evaluation of locomotion apparatus motion parameters captured by inertial measurement units (IMU) during walking. Motion Capture technology is process of getting practical results and data from IMU installed in different parts of human lower limbs. Synchronously, IMU send information about human movements to PC at the same moment of time. Such method gives an opportunity to follow parameters in some points of human leg in real time. The way of devices mounting and instruction for human under monitoring are based on related medical projects. Walking is selected for estimation of the musculoskeletal system as typical action. Experiment results got from several experiments were considered and analyzed.Basically, walking is described as a set of the system “human” discrete states. In the same time, the IMU sensors transmit motion parameters data continuously. It is proposed to present the man as a system with a control signal in the form of the double support period. The length will be measured using data from IMU. Double support period is chosen because its presence distinguishes walking from running.The most attention is given to getting the same practical results and data that can be obtained by placing the devices in different parts of the body. Moreover, a technique of using inertial measurement devices for measuring human motion to get some numerical results is shown. The use of this technique in practice demonstrated that it can be used to obtain an objective parameter describing the motion of the person. Continuation of this work is directed to create a complete model of the lower limbs motion for usage in practice [1].

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