A highly loaded high-pressure turbine with a supersonic nozzle guide vane and a transonic rotor for a Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) has been investigated. Film cooling strategies were designed for the whole stage, during which the positions, injection orientations and arrangements of cooling holes were confirmed. Three-dimensional steady numerical simulations have been performed in the two operation modes of low and high bypass ratio with different thermodynamic cycle parameters according to the VCE and the coolant injections have been simulated by means of additional source term method. The influences of coolant injections in the fully cooled turbine stage on aerodynamic performance and flow characteristics have been analyzed. The results indicate that, the supersonic nozzle guide vane, over-expansion degree of main flows, fluctuations of static pressure and intensity of corner vortex are lessened or alleviated. In the transonic rotor, expansion and doing work capabilities in the mixed fluid are strengthened. Proper coolants injections are beneficial to the flow characteristics in the blade passage.