The solid particle erosion behavior of the body materials used in high-speed moving equipments has attracted widely attention from researchers. In order to enhance the erosion resistance of existing FRP materials and to develop new FRP materials with high strength and excellent erosion resistance, we attempted to use VGCF (vapor-grown carbon fiber) with high strength and high modulus as filler for reinforcing UP resin matrix. In this study, VGCFs were treated by UV ozone treatment for improving the interface adhesion, and the effects of the filler weight content, impact angle and impact velocity upon the erosion wear behavior of UP resin composite materials have been carried out. The mechanical properties of composites materials reinforced by VGCF were also evaluated. The results indicate that it is feasible to improve the erosion resistance and flexural properties of UP resin by VGCF filler simultaneously.