This research investigated the distributive characteristics of soil microorganisms at dry lake wetland on semiarid grassland. Four plots, typical steppe (DT), lake side (HB), lake bed (HD), and lake center (HX), were selected from Huitengxile located in semiarid grassland to conducted this investigation. The results showed that the number of aerobic bacteria at DT is 1.07 times that at HB, 1.14 times that at HX, and 1.45 times that at HD. The number of fungi at DT is 3.81 times that at HD, 10.65 times that at HB, and 25.75 times that at HX. There is significant difference between HX, HB and the other two plots (p<0.05). Also, there is significant difference between HD and DT. The number of Spore-forming bacteria at DT is 1.65 times that at HD, 2.15 times that at HB, and 6.35 times that at HX. There is significant difference between HD, HB and the other two plots, as well. The number of actinomycetes at HB is highest which is 2.12 times that at HD, 2.27 times that at DT, and 3.43 times that at HX. Moreover, there is a distinct feature of transverse distribution for soil microorganisms communities at dry lake wetland on semiarid grassland. Excluding actinomycetes, the number of soil microorganisms at dry lake wetland were both lower than that at typical steppe. There is a significant correlation between the total amount of soil microorganisms and microbial biomass C at dry lake wetland. These results can be used as the theoretical foundation for the restoration of degraded lake wetland, and the exploitation and utilization of wetland microbial resources.