In order to disscuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, a up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesize substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. In this paper, UASB reactor was seeded with sludge from the Harbin Wenchang Sewage treatment plant dewatered sludge. Successful start-up of the reactor was achieved within 40 days at 35±1°C.The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in influent is increased from 1100mg/L . When it reached maximum, the loading rate was adjusted in a small way and indicators such as VFA, pH and COD in effluent as well as gas production are observed. The most relevant parameters were calibrated with lab-scale experimental data. These experimental results clearly showed that, the most proper corresponding organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were 6 kg/ (m3.d)（COD=6000mg/L）and 24 h respectively. Up to 85% of COD was removed and the CH4 production rate of 3.2 m3 / (m3 .d) was obtained. The produced biogas contained 72% of CH4. In the mean time, anaerobic sludge multiplies more faster and exiguous particles appeared. Granules with diameter 1-3mm.