The surface of ants was observed, analyzed and tested by using of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectrometer technology. On different surface of the ants, the waveform characteristics which were formed by different sizes of grooves were found. These cross sections of waveform surface were waveform curves which had continuous periods and amplitudes. Their sizes varied with different part of the ant. In addition, there was distribution of setae of various sizes on surface of the body. Under higher multiple of electron microscope, the bigger setae had the waveform surface of smaller periods and amplitudes. The results of composition analyzing indicated that the surface of ants contained multi-elements. Among these elements, the most abundant was O which content was over 57%. The following abundant element was C which content was more than 23%. The other elements such as Na, Mg, Zn, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca remained less than 3% respectively. The distribution of morphological characteristics and surface composition may contribute to the property of reducing soil adherence.