Based on the shaking table model test of a bent-type aqueduct on the rigidity foundation, the dynamic characteristics and seismic performance of the aqueduct structure subjected to vertical seismic waves are discussed. The test indicates that (1) Water in the aqueduct makes the mass of the structure larger and the frequency of the model structure lower. The water in aqueduct makes fundamental frequency of the model reduce 32% and the modal damping increase 38.5% averagely. (2)The hydrodynamic pressure response at the bottom of the aqueduct is the highest. (3)The dynamic effect of El waves on the aqueduct structure is greater than that of all SEW waves. (4) Different types of earthquake waves have different frequency spectrum characteristics, so that the aqueduct model responses differently to different waves. (5) The water in the aqueduct sometimes plays a role as TLD damping in certain scope. If surpassing this scope, the water sloshing makes the vertical acceleration response of the aqueduct increase. The results of the test not only lead to some significant conclusions for the earthquake-resistant design of large bent-type aqueducts, but also provide a ground for further studies on the effects of soil-pile-aqueduct interaction.