The nanocrystalline WC-10Co hard alloys with high density (97.5% T.D.) have been prepared by use of mixing and explosion compaction technology and the average crystalline size is less than 100 nm. The microstructure analysis shows that, the particle size of the mixing powders is less than 200nm and that of the explosive compaction billet is even fine about 100nm. If explosive speed of any explosive is either big or small, we can not get density billets because the initial density of mixing powders is too low. If using secondary explosive compaction process (low-speed explosive Ammonium Nitrate 280g + high-speed explosive TNT 200g), we can get about 97% (maximum density of 97.58%) of the theory density of bulk nanocrystalline WC-10Co hard alloys.