Application of Shotcrete Linings under Sulfate Attack Environments
Shotcrete lining has been increasingly used in tunnel and underground structure since 1960. Cement in shotcrete is the most vulnerable to aggressive sulphate ions from the environment in the presence of moisture. Sulfate attack can change the chemical composition of the cement matrix.The sulfate attack can be caused by alkali sulfates or due to thaumasite form of sulfate attack (TSA). Based on the mechanism of sulfate attack in conrete, the features of the interaction of the sulfate bearing ground water with shotcrete linings are presented in this paper. Under sulfate attack environment, shotcrete durability and the specification of materials should be highlighted in design. The basic requirements to the shotcrete are high strength, low permeability and good homogeneity, which can be produced by well controlled wet process.
Zhong Cao, Lixian Sun, Xueqiang Cao, Yinghe He
J. Q. Ma "Application of Shotcrete Linings under Sulfate Attack Environments", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 233-235, pp. 2061-2067, 2011