In this paper, the effect of microwave treatment on the hydrogen peroxide bleaching of Soda-AQ wheat-straw pulp was investigated. The results showed that microwave treatment could increase the brightness of the hydrogen peroxide bleached pulp. The fiber coarseness of microwave enhancing peroxide bleached pulp was higher than that of the peroxide bleached pulp. However, the arithmetic average fiber length, the length weighted average fiber length and weight weighted average fiber length of the former was lower than that of the latter. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed that CrI(%) crystallinity of microwave enhancing peroxide bleached pulp was similar as that of the peroxide bleached pulp but all higher than that of the Soda-AQ wheat-straw pulp. N·O′KI infra-red crystalline index of microwave enhancing peroxide bleached pulp were lower than that of the peroxide bleached pulp. The FTIR spectra of lignin showed that the microwave treatment had some influences on the methoxyl and phenolic group in lignin.