The temperature control of mass concrete is regarded to be a universal problem. Because of the heavy load of railway cable-stayed bridges, the pile caps usually have large dimensions, so the thermal stress, which is caused by hydration heat, must be emphasized. In order to study the spatial distribution of temperature in mass concrete and find a functional temperature control measure during construction, the theoretical and FEM analysis of hydration heat-thermal stress field are applied, which can improve structural reliability and provide reference for design and engineering of the similar project. Based on FEM calculation, the theoretical hydration heat temperature field is obtained. In the same time, the temperature sensors as well as strain sensors are arranged in the key position of pile cap. Then the variation of hydration temperature in concrete would be measured and recorded since the concrete is pouring. According to the theoretical simulation and the monitoring results, the time-history curve of hydration heat is obtained, and the variation of inner temperature gradient along the height direction as well as the longitudinal direction with the concrete age are studied, and the feasibility of temperature control measures is also verified.