As one assessment method of the water resources, Water Poverty Index has become an available tool in water resources management for it simply calculation process, comprehensive understanding of the results. This paper introduces the concept of the Water Poverty Index, and applies it at these districts of Yellow River Basin by using equal weightings methodology. During the process of calculating it, some component variables of the WPI have been improved and the data addressed standardization. The result shows that the water resources of Shandong is safe, Sichuan and Henan province is middling safe and low safe, while the WPI of the other six provinces is so low which reflects water resources shortage is very severe. The same time, this paper analysis the main reasons of water poverty, which provides the access to improve the water resource management in these districts.