A Three-Dimensional Model of Droplet Impinging, Solidification and Suspension on the Substrate
A three-dimensional model was built to study a molten metal droplet impact on an edge of the substrate in droplet deposition manufacturing process for the first time. The whole calculation domain, including the substrate, was described using same fluid conservation equations, which is to say that the remolding and solidification of substrate was considered also. Droplet free surface was tracked by volume-of-fluid (VOF) algorithm. The effect of surface tension on the droplet was taken into consideration by means of considering surface tension to be a component of the body force. The simulated results show that the droplet in liquid phase can keep suspending on the substrate at a role of surface tension. A too high impact velocity would make parts of droplet splash away the substrate which is not allowed in manufacturing process. The offset between edge of droplet and side edge of substrate influences dramatically the impact of the droplet.
S. Zhu et al., "A Three-Dimensional Model of Droplet Impinging, Solidification and Suspension on the Substrate", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 346, pp. 222-227, 2012