A New Indicator for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Fuels
Net energy (NE) output, external cost to society of emissions, total production costs, and the renewability of a fuel are four critical factors that should be taken into account while developing sustainable energy resource systems. For this purpose, a new indicator, CNERλ,(Cost of Net Energy taking into account the Renewability) is proposed in this paper. The mixture of 85% ethanol (derived from corn) and 15% gasoline by volume (E85) and conventional gasoline (CG) are selected as assessing cases for illustrating the application of the new indicator. The CNERλ of E85 is 0.885, i.e. 12.5% lower than that of CG. It is shown that E85 is a more sustainable option comparing with CG by using the novel assessment indicator.
Weiguo Pan, Jianxing Ren and Yongguang Li
Z. P. Zhou et al., "A New Indicator for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Fuels", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 347-353, pp. 360-363, 2012