An Assessment of Bulk and Local Stored Energy Measurements in Ultrafine Grained Interstitial Free Steel
The evolution of stored energy and associated thermal behaviour was investigated for an ultrafine grained Ti-IF steel severely deformed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) followed by cold rolling at ambient and liquid nitrogen temperatures. Bulk stored energy measurements by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) returned 350-600 whereas local stored energy estimates from microhardness, Electron Back-Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray line profile analysis resulted in 5-140 . Higher bulk stored energy values correspond to the enthalpy release from all sources of strain in the material volume as well as Ti precipitation during annealing while the lower local stored energy range alludes only to dislocation content or internal stresses. An apparent activation energy of 500-550 suggests sluggish recrystallisation due to excess of Ti in solid solution.
T. Chandra, N. Wanderka, W. Reimers , M. Ionescu
S. S. Hazra et al., "An Assessment of Bulk and Local Stored Energy Measurements in Ultrafine Grained Interstitial Free Steel", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 89-91, pp. 244-249, 2010