As the dimensions of parts become smaller, understanding the mechanical properties of these small components was becoming more important. Till present day, the methods and technology used to investigate the deformation behavior in nanoscale were still lacking. In this paper, the specimens were single crystal copper wires with diameter in 50 microns. Atomic force microscope integrated with an in- situ tensile system were used to determine the mechanical behavior of copper wires and observe the surface topography deformation in nanoscale simultaneously. The results were as follows: the modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and failure strain of the sample were 167Gpa, 0.564GPa and 0.011, respectively. By using AFM, the separation process between the copper wire and impurities on it, such as oxide film, was observed. The nanoscale deformation process of the copper wire was also obtained.