In the present paper, active vibration control of cylindrical shell structure is conducted based on optimized actuator placement. Anisotropic piezoelectric actuator named as Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) is adopted for vibration control. The governing equations of motions of the cylindrical shell structure including MFC actuators are derived from Lagrange’s equation. For the verification of the proposed analytic model, numerical results of modal analysis are compared with those of experimental test results. Optimal placements of the MFC actuators are determined with Genetic Algorithm for the effective control performance. Robust controller is then designed to suppress structural vibration of the proposed smart structure and control performances are evaluated.