Advantages Hot Isostatically Pressed Ceramic and Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms Bring to the Immobilization of Challenging Intermediate- and High-Level Nuclear Wastes
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a technology with wide applicability in consolidating calcined intermediate-level and high-level nuclear waste, especially with wastes that are not able to be readily processed by vitrification at reasonable waste loadings. The essential process steps during the HIP cycle will be outlined. We have demonstrated the effective consolidation via HIP technology of a wide variety of tailored glass-ceramic and ceramic waste forms, notably simulated ICPP waste calcines, I sorbed upon zeolite beads, Pu-bearing wastes, inactive Cs/Sr/Rb/Ba mixtures, simulated waste pyroprocessing salts from spent nuclear fuel recycling, Tc, U-rich isotope production waste, and simulated K-basin (Hanford, WA, USA) and Magnox sludges (UK). Can-ceramic interactions have been carefully studied. The principal advantages of the HIP technology include: negligible offgas during the high temperature consolidation step, relatively small footprint, and high waste loadings. As a batch process, the wasteform chemistry can be readily adjusted on a given process line, to deliver wastes into different end states (e.g. direct HIP versus chemically tailored). This flexibility allows the treatment of multiple waste streams on the one process line.
Pietro VINCENZINI, Hua-Tay LIN and Kevin FOX
E. R. Vance et al., "Advantages Hot Isostatically Pressed Ceramic and Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms Bring to the Immobilization of Challenging Intermediate- and High-Level Nuclear Wastes", Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 73, pp. 130-135, 2010