Diffusion and Diffusional Phase Transformations in Alloys

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Authors: Z. Balogh, Csaba Cserháti, Z. Erdélyi, A. Csik, G.A. Langer, I. Zizak, N. Darowski, E. Dudzik, R. Feyerherm, Dezső L. Beke
Abstract: Solid state reactions between amorpous Si and crystalline Co have been investigated by synchrotron radiation at Bessy (Berlin, Germany). The multilayered samples (with 10 periods of a-Si(15 nm)/Co(15 nm) layers) were produced by magnetron sputtering and isothermally heat treated at temperatures between 523 and 593 K. From the time evolution of the XRD spectra first the growth rate of the CoSi phase as well as the decay rate of the Co layer we determined (at 523 and 543 K). The kinetics were described by a power law; tk, and for the growth of CoSi k=0.65 while for the loss of the Co the k=0.77 was obtained, respectively. At higher temperatures (at 573 and 593 K) the formation and growth of the Co2Si layer, at the expense of the Co and already existing CoSi layers, was observed with exponents of about 1 for all the above kinetics. These results, together with the results of resistance kinetics measurements, in similar multilayered as well as bi-layered samples at similar temperatures, providing similar exponents will be presented. Possibility of the interface reaction control and/or the effect of the diffusion asymmetry (which was recently published for the interpretation of solid state reactions with non-parabolic kinetics on the nanoscale) will be discussed.
Authors: Yuri S. Kaganovsky, Lyudmila N. Paritskaya, V.V. Bogdanov
Abstract: The kinetics of growth and lateral spreading of intermetallic layers during surface interdiffusion in Cu – Sn system has been studied in a temperature range 160 – 200oC by the methods of optical microscopy, SEM provided with X-ray microprobe, and AFM. Lateral phase spreading over the surface is characterized by competition between two phases: Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn. A steady state solution for concentration distribution on the surface of growing intermetallic phases, as well as kinetic equations of lateral spreading of growing phase layers have been obtained. By comparison of experimental data on intermetallic growth kinetics with the proposed theory, the dynamic surface diffusion coefficients have been calculated.
Authors: Alexander V. Evteev, Elena V. Levchenko, Irina V. Belova, Graeme E. Murch
Abstract: A theoretical and atomistic study of diffusion and stability of a pure element hollow nanosphere and nanotube is performed. The shrinkage via the vacancy mechanism of these hollow nano-objects is described analytically. Using Gibbs-Thomson boundary conditions an exact solution of the kinetic equation in quasi steady-state at the linear approximation is obtained. The collapse time as a function of the geometrical sizes of the hollow nano-objects is determined. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of the shrinkage of these nano-objects is performed: it confirms the predictions of the analytical analysis. Next, molecular dynamics simulation in combination with the embedded atom method is used to investigate diffusion by the vacancy mechanism in a Pd hollow nanosphere and nanotube. It is found that the diffusion coefficient in a Pd hollow nanosphere and nanotube is larger near the inner and external surfaces compared with the middle part of a nanoshell. The molecular dynamics results provide quite a strong but indirect argument that a real pure element hollow nanosphere and nanotube may not shrink as readily via the vacancy mechanism as compared with the predictions of the analytical analysis and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.
Authors: Miklos Kis-Varga, G.A. Langer, A. Csik, Z. Erdélyi, Dezső L. Beke
Abstract: Epitaxial, coherent Mo/V multilayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering on (001) oriented MgO substrates at 873K (sample MoV-T), 923K (sample MoV-U) and 973K (sample MoV-V), respectively. In order to estimate the concentration profiles in our multilayers, a superlattice refinement modelling procedure has been used on high-angle XRD symmetric scans. The Mo/V interfaces were always sharper than V/Mo ones (in this notation the order of element reflects the sequence of deposition: e.g. the Mo/V interface was formed by the deposition of the V on the Mo surface). Furthermore the interface diffuseness was only slightly different at the lowest substrate temperature, but the difference increased with increasing temperature and an abrupt concentration jump could be observed at the Mo/V interface in the sample, sputtered at the 973 K. This indicates that during deposition the interfacial mixing by impact exchange events is important and thermally activated processes (surface diffusion and/or jumps driven by segregation) are less effective. With increasing substrate temperature the thickness of the V/Mo interfaces were unchanged while the Mo/V interface became shaper and sharper i.e. thermally activated jumps were more active during deposition of V atoms. Thus in forming Mo/V interfaces the segregation tendency of V to the Mo surface results in enhanced exchanges between V atoms (buried in the near surface layers of the Mo substrate) and surface Mo atoms, leading to more sharper interface with increasing temperature. On the other hand during the formation of the V/Mo interfaces the chemical thickness of the interface, provided again by impact exchanges, was practically unchanged.
Authors: Ya. Matychak, V. Fedirko, I. Pohreljuk, O. Yaskiv, O. Tkachuk
Abstract: The diffusion saturation of (α + β) titanium alloy by nitrogen under rarefied medium taking into account the peculiarities of interaction both at the interface and in the metal core is modeled. The corresponding diffusion problem using the diffusion equations in the medium consisting two families of diffusion paths and non-stationary boundary condition at interface is analytically solved. The effect of the temperature and time parameters, volumetric quantity of β- phase on the kinetics of nitriding is estimated. It is established that with the increase of isothermal exposure temperature and quantity of β-phase the surface saturation by nitrogen decreases. It is caused by more intensive nitrogen penetration into bulk and formation of a deeper diffusion zone.
Authors: Yu.A. Lyashenko
Abstract: The suppression criterion of the binary phase growth due to addition of a third component is considered. In this case the analysis of the two possible criteria of the first phase growth are considered: first – kinetic criterion based on the balance of components fluxes and second - thermodynamic criterion which is based on the maximal rate of the entropy production principle. We demonstrate that in the case of a model system the thermodynamic criterion lead to a bigger value of the critical thickness of the phases which are suppressed by the growth of the investigated phase.
Authors: Mykola Pasichnyy, Andriy Gusak
Abstract: Lateral growth of intermediate phase during reactive diffusion was analyzed. Proposed model is based on the assumption that the main driving force of the lateral growth process is the chemical one (proportional to composition gradient along the interface). Asymmetric case of phase formation taking into account the curvature of all three interfaces at the triple joint is considered.

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