Prof. Andreas Öchsner, Irina V. Belova and Prof. Graeme E. Murch
Online since: June 2015
Description: This topical volume on "Recent Developments of Diffusion Processes and their Applications: Fluid, Heat and Mass" addresses diffusion in a wider sense with a special focus on technical applications. Diffusion phenomena play an important role in the development of modern engineering materials and related fields. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the recent advances in the area of diffusive transport. Reflecting the enormous breadth of the area, the range of topics covered is accordingly very large. Topics include classical mass diffusion problems such as phase transformations, corrosion behavior, thin layers and microstructures. Technical applications related to fuel production and energy conversion, biological and biomedical material are treated. Many of these topics are related to experimental measurements and methods as well as simulation and approaches to predict properties and processes.
S.V. Divinski, H. Bracht and N.A. Stolwijk
Online since: May 2015
Description: Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the International Conference on Diffusion in Materials (DIMAT 2014), August 17-22, 2014, Münster, Germany. The 34 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Reactions and Interdiffusion in Binary and Multicomponent Systems; Chapter 2: Ion Transport; Chapter 3: Defects, Stresses and Relaxation; Chapter 4: Short-Circuit Diffusion; Chapter 5: Diffusion Phenomena under Strong Gravitation; Chapter 6: Diffusion-Related Phenomena; Chapter 7: Advanced Methods of Diffusion Measurement
Antonio F. Miguel, Luiz Alberto Oliveira Rocha and Prof. Andreas Öchsner
Online since: April 2015
Description: Fluid flow, thermodynamics and heat/mass transfer are nowadays central pillars of science and technology. They have been central to the development of our civilization because we use them not only to understand natural-world phenomena but also to achieve incremental improvements in technology. The special session “Fluid Flow, Energy Transfer and Design” held at the 10th International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids (DSL 2014) includes papers of different areas ranging from physics, mathematics and chemistry to engineering and provided several contributions for this topical volume. Other experts in the field of heat and mass transfer were as well invited to contribute to this volume.
Description: It is pertinent to note that Luminescence phenomenon has once again occupied a central stage with the announcement of Nobel Prize in October 2014 to three Japanese scientists. The discovery of Galium Nitride proved to be a revolutionary step forward in creation of Blue LEDs. With the advent of LED lamps we now have more long-lasting and more efficient alternatives to older light sources. The Volume under reference consists of 9 Chapters, written by experts in the area of Luminescent Materials. First 5 Chapters are contributed as Review Papers and the last 4 are based on Research Papers.Chapter 1 is contributed by H.S. Virk, editor of this Volume, under the Title: “History of Luminescence from Ancient to Modern Times”. It traces the history of Luminescence based on E. Newton Harvey’s 770 page volume, which is a Classic in this area and narrates interesting stories from ancient cultures to modern times. The author has summarized the results of investigations of Bangalore Group under Sir CV Raman, the Indian Nobel Laureate of 1930. He has called “The Physics Nobel Prize 2014,” an Award for Luminescence.Chapter 2 is contributed by Sanjay Tiwari and JV Yakhmi on an important Topic: “Recent Advances in Luminescent Nanomaterials for Solid State Lighting Applications”. In fact, the recent Nobel Prize 2014 in Physics has been awarded for development of Luminescent Materials. The authors write: “Luminescent nanomaterials have attracted great interest worldwide because of their unusual structural, optical and electronic properties as well as efforts to prepare miniaturised devices. By understanding and manipulating these properties, the performance of the resulting optical structure can be tailored for desired end-use applications”.Chapter 3: “Persistence Mechanisms and Applications of Long Afterglow Phosphors” is contributed by NPL, New Dehli Group of V. Shankar and D. Haranath. The authors present a broad review of long persistence (LP) materials that are a special kind of photon energy storage and conversion materials. These are also known as long afterglow phosphors or long decay phosphors (LDP). This review Paper covers the recent advances in the blue, green and red-emitting LP phosphors/nanophosphors, persistence mechanism involved and the basic problems associated with their luminescence efficiency and persistence times.Chapter 4 by the Group of SK Omanwar: “Exploring Synthesis Techniques for Yttrium Based Phosphors” is focused on synthesis techniques developed by author’s group. An inter-comparison of various techniques is listed and data presented in 9 tables. The synthesis methods of yttrium based phosphors in terms of the particle sizes, morphology, required temperatures for synthesis, cost required for synthesis, and required time, are presented in this review in detail.Chapter 5 is contributed by the team of BP Chandra, a renowned scholar in ML, under the title: “Mechanoluminescence of Coloured Alkali Halide Crystals”. It is one of the longest Chapters in this volume and focusses on both Theoretical and Experimental aspects of elastico-mechanoluminescence (EML), plastico-mechanoluminescence (PML) and fracto- mechanoluminescence (FML) of coloured alkali halide crystals in all details.Chapters 6 & 7 are contributed by an upcoming Group working under Dr Sanjay Dhoble of RTM university Nagpur. The authors investigate PL and TL properties of Eu2+ and Ce3+ Activated BaAlSi5O2N7 Phosphors in the 6th Chapter: “Photoluminescence and Thermoluminescence Properties of Eu2+ and Ce3+ Activated BaAlSi5O2N7 Phosphors”. TL dose response of BaAlSi6O2N7:Eu2+ Phosphor was found to be linear in the dose range from 5.8 mGy to 22.5 mGy, and above this, it goes to the saturation level. 7th chapter: “Photoluminescence Properties of YAl3(BO3)4:RE3+ (RE=Ce/Dy/Tb) Phosphors” is also focused on PL properties of phosphors. It was found that this phosphor acts as a potential color tunable UV phosphor for white light LED devices.Chapters 8 & 9 are contributed by Meera Ramrakhiani Group of RD University, Jabalpur. EL studies have been made by this group of young researchers in their contributed Papers: “Electroluminescence in Organically Capped Cd1-x ZnxSe Chalcogenide Nanocrystals” and “Synthesis and Electroluminescence of Silver Doped ZnS/PVK Nanocomposite”, respectively. It is interesting to note that research work on Nanocomposites has been recognized to boost the economy at global level. Effect of Silver doping and ZnS loading has been investigated on the performance of ZnS/PVK nanocomposite in the last Chapter of this Volume.
Description: The point defect is just one of the menagerie of defects (comprising dislocations, disvections, discommensurations, stacking-faults, antiphase boundaries, etc.) which affect the mechanical and other properties of all materials. The class of point defect can be further divided into interstitial, substitutional and antisite. Various combinations of these defects lead to pairings such as those of Frenkel and Shottky type. The present volume comprises a compilation of selected data concerning point defects in metals, semiconductors, carbon and carbides, nitrides, halides, oxides and miscellaneous materials including solid inert gases. Not mentioned here are Stone-Wales defects, which were covered in volume 356. The 458 entries of the present volume cover the period from 1962 to 2014.
Description: Energy, and especially its minimization, are factors which govern all physical processes. Given sufficient time and thermal activation, for instance, grain boundaries will move so as to tend towards a regular array of 14-sided grains. When a grain boundary intercepts a surface, the energies of the surface and boundary govern the precise form of the triple-point. Regions of mismatch within the solid, especially those associated with dislocations, interfere with dislocation cross-slip and thereby affect mechanical properties. The present volume comprises a compilation of measured values of the energies of various planar defects in solids: including grain boundaries, stacking-faults, twins, etc. for a wide range of material groups: metals, semiconductors, oxides, carbides, diamond, graphite, nitrides, halides, ice, and various minerals. The 451 entries cover the period from 1958 to 2014.
The Monte Carlo method, largely the brainchild of Stanislaw Ulam and first implemented by John von Neumann, depends upon the use of digital computers and is therefore very much a product of post-WW2 technological developments; even though one could argue that the Buffon’s Needle estimate was an ancestor of the technique. The probabilistic nature of the method makes it a good choice for modeling those physical phenomena which involve similarly random motions at the atomic scale; a particularly good example being that of mass diffusion. The present volume comprises a compilation of selected Monte Carlo studies of diffusion in borides, carbides, diamond, graphene, graphite, hydrides, ice, metals, oxides, semiconductors, sulfides, zeolites and other materials. General aspects of diffusion are also covered. The 516 entries cover the period from 1966 to 2014.
Description: The word luminescence was first used by a German physicist, Eilhardt Wiedemann, in 1888. He also classified luminescence into six kinds according to the method of excitation. No better basis of classification is available today. He recognized photoluminescence, thermoluminescence, electroluminescence, crystalloluminescence, triboluminescence, and chemiluminescence. The designations are obvious, characterized by the prefix. This Volume consists of 9 Chapters, including 8 Review Papers and one Case Study. The first two papers are based on OLEDs. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been the focus of intense study since the late 1980s. Since that time, research has continued to demonstrate the potential of OLEDs as viable systems for displays and eco-friendly lighting applications. Thejokalyani and Sanjay Dhoble have given historical introduction to OLEDs in the first chapter under the title “Importance of Eco-friendly OLED Lighting”. They describe core fabrication technologies and applications of OLEDs in their paper. V. K. Chandra et al. have covered both theoretical and experimental aspects in their paper, “Organic Light - Emitting Diodes and their Applications” in the most rigorous way. This Chapter describes the salient features of OLEDs and discusses the applications of OLEDs in displays and solid state lighting devices.Organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite materials have been of great interest for their extraordinary performances. Interaction between the polymer matrix and nanocrystalline fillers produces wonderful features, viz. thermal, magnetic, mechanical, electrical and optical properties to these materials. S.K. Tripathi et al. have reviewed the present status of II-VI polymer nanocomposites from the photoluminescence studies point of view in the 3rd Chapter. Electroluminescence in undoped and doped chalcogenide nanocrystals and nanocomposites is reviewed in 4th Chapter by Meera et al. Nanocrystalline powder samples of CdS, CdSe, ZnS and ZnSe nanocrystals and their composites with PVA and PVK have been prepared by chemical route and investigated in detail. Chapters 5 and 6 are contributed by RK Gartia on two important topics: “Thermoluminescence of Persistent Luminescent Materials” and “Design of Inorganic Scintillators: Role of Thermoluminescence”. The author has demonstrated the application of TL, by virtue of its inherent sensitivity coupled with its universal applicability, to investigate practically all semiconducting/inorganic materials in terms of their trap- spectroscopy.Chapter 7 by Rabiul Biswas deals with application of luminescence to earth and planetary sciences. The author discusses some landmarks and recent developments in this field of luminescence dating with stress on extending the dating range. Chapter 8 by Jain and Bøtter-Jensen is focused on the developments around the Risø-TL/OSL reader which is popular amongst the dating community. The 9th Chapter is added as a case study. The authors, JN Reddy and KVR Murthy, claim that the primary objective of their PC Controlled TL Reader is to bring out versatile TL instrumentation system and also to make it affordable to many of the researchers in the Universities and other areas, including Radio-therapy and Medical Physics.
Description: Carbon nanotubes are one of the newest materials to be discovered, being barely 20 years old. They are also the most promising one, with one particular sample of multi-walled nanotube attaining a tensile strength of 63GPa, and with carbon nanotubes in general having a specific strength of up to 48000kNm/kg: effectively a direct exploitation of the covalent sp2 bonding between carbon atoms. Plastic deformation begins at about 5% strain. The nanotubes can be produced in lengths of up to 550mm, and thicknesses as small as 4.3Å; making them perfect reinforcement fibres for composites. They also have many other properties which may be useful in electronics, gas storage , etc. The present compilation focuses on the various characteristic types of defect which are found in carbon nanotubes, plus the relatively limited number of diffusion studies which have been performed. The 418 entries cover the period from 1994 to 2014.