Description: Energy, and especially its minimization, are factors which govern all physical processes. Given sufficient time and thermal activation, for instance, grain boundaries will move so as to tend towards a regular array of 14-sided grains. When a grain boundary intercepts a surface, the energies of the surface and boundary govern the precise form of the triple-point. Regions of mismatch within the solid, especially those associated with dislocations, interfere with dislocation cross-slip and thereby affect mechanical properties. The present volume comprises a compilation of measured values of the energies of various planar defects in solids: including grain boundaries, stacking-faults, twins, etc. for a wide range of material groups: metals, semiconductors, oxides, carbides, diamond, graphite, nitrides, halides, ice, and various minerals. The 451 entries cover the period from 1958 to 2014.
The Monte Carlo method, largely the brainchild of Stanislaw Ulam and first implemented by John von Neumann, depends upon the use of digital computers and is therefore very much a product of post-WW2 technological developments; even though one could argue that the Buffon’s Needle estimate was an ancestor of the technique. The probabilistic nature of the method makes it a good choice for modeling those physical phenomena which involve similarly random motions at the atomic scale; a particularly good example being that of mass diffusion. The present volume comprises a compilation of selected Monte Carlo studies of diffusion in borides, carbides, diamond, graphene, graphite, hydrides, ice, metals, oxides, semiconductors, sulfides, zeolites and other materials. General aspects of diffusion are also covered. The 516 entries cover the period from 1966 to 2014.
Description: The word luminescence was first used by a German physicist, Eilhardt Wiedemann, in 1888. He also classified luminescence into six kinds according to the method of excitation. No better basis of classification is available today. He recognized photoluminescence, thermoluminescence, electroluminescence, crystalloluminescence, triboluminescence, and chemiluminescence. The designations are obvious, characterized by the prefix. This Volume consists of 9 Chapters, including 8 Review Papers and one Case Study. The first two papers are based on OLEDs. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been the focus of intense study since the late 1980s. Since that time, research has continued to demonstrate the potential of OLEDs as viable systems for displays and eco-friendly lighting applications. Thejokalyani and Sanjay Dhoble have given historical introduction to OLEDs in the first chapter under the title “Importance of Eco-friendly OLED Lighting”. They describe core fabrication technologies and applications of OLEDs in their paper. V. K. Chandra et al. have covered both theoretical and experimental aspects in their paper, “Organic Light - Emitting Diodes and their Applications” in the most rigorous way. This Chapter describes the salient features of OLEDs and discusses the applications of OLEDs in displays and solid state lighting devices.Organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite materials have been of great interest for their extraordinary performances. Interaction between the polymer matrix and nanocrystalline fillers produces wonderful features, viz. thermal, magnetic, mechanical, electrical and optical properties to these materials. S.K. Tripathi et al. have reviewed the present status of II-VI polymer nanocomposites from the photoluminescence studies point of view in the 3rd Chapter. Electroluminescence in undoped and doped chalcogenide nanocrystals and nanocomposites is reviewed in 4th Chapter by Meera et al. Nanocrystalline powder samples of CdS, CdSe, ZnS and ZnSe nanocrystals and their composites with PVA and PVK have been prepared by chemical route and investigated in detail. Chapters 5 and 6 are contributed by RK Gartia on two important topics: “Thermoluminescence of Persistent Luminescent Materials” and “Design of Inorganic Scintillators: Role of Thermoluminescence”. The author has demonstrated the application of TL, by virtue of its inherent sensitivity coupled with its universal applicability, to investigate practically all semiconducting/inorganic materials in terms of their trap- spectroscopy.Chapter 7 by Rabiul Biswas deals with application of luminescence to earth and planetary sciences. The author discusses some landmarks and recent developments in this field of luminescence dating with stress on extending the dating range. Chapter 8 by Jain and Bøtter-Jensen is focused on the developments around the Risø-TL/OSL reader which is popular amongst the dating community. The 9th Chapter is added as a case study. The authors, JN Reddy and KVR Murthy, claim that the primary objective of their PC Controlled TL Reader is to bring out versatile TL instrumentation system and also to make it affordable to many of the researchers in the Universities and other areas, including Radio-therapy and Medical Physics.
Description: Carbon nanotubes are one of the newest materials to be discovered, being barely 20 years old. They are also the most promising one, with one particular sample of multi-walled nanotube attaining a tensile strength of 63GPa, and with carbon nanotubes in general having a specific strength of up to 48000kNm/kg: effectively a direct exploitation of the covalent sp2 bonding between carbon atoms. Plastic deformation begins at about 5% strain. The nanotubes can be produced in lengths of up to 550mm, and thicknesses as small as 4.3Å; making them perfect reinforcement fibres for composites. They also have many other properties which may be useful in electronics, gas storage , etc. The present compilation focuses on the various characteristic types of defect which are found in carbon nanotubes, plus the relatively limited number of diffusion studies which have been performed. The 418 entries cover the period from 1994 to 2014.
Andreas Öchsner, Graeme Murch and Irina Belova
Online since: June 2014
Description: Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS). This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the recent advances in the area of mass and heat transport. Reflecting the enormous breadth of the area, the range of topics covered is accordingly very large.
Andreas Öchsner, Graeme E. Murch, Ali Shokuhfar and João M.P.Q. Delgado
Online since: May 2014
Description: Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 9th International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids Mass Transfer - Heat Transfer - Microstructure & Properties - Nanodiffusion and Nanostructured Materials (DSL-2013), June 24 – 28, 2013, Madrid, Spain. The goal of the conference was to provide a unique opportunity to exchange information, to present the latest results as well as to review the relevant issues on contemporary diffusion research.
Description: The simple, empirical, surprisingly accurate and venerable Arrhenius equation, based upon the work of Van't Hoff, is very useful for summarising large bodies of experimentally determined diffusion data for a given host/diffusant system. It is the first port of call for any researcher planning new diffusion studies, or for engineers who need to estimate heat-treatment times in manufacturing processes. The present compilation covers Arrhenius parameters for the host-metals: aluminum, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, hafnium, indium, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, platinum, potassium, rhodium, ruthenium, scandium, silver, sodium, tantalum, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zinc and zirconium. The 1315 entries cover the period from 1927 to 2013.
Description: The microporous aluminosilicate minerals known as Zeolites are invaluable as adsorbents, molecular sieves and catalysts because they possess a porous structure that can let pass or accommodate cations such as, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, etc. These are nevertheless loosely held and can be easily exchanged for those in an adjacent solution. Movement of other materials through Zeolites is naturally an important factor. The present compilation consists of diffusion data. These represent, as far as possible, pure diffusion, shorn of other transfer mechanisms such as permeation. Most of the results involve well-known artificially produced Zeolites, but also include information on naturally occurring Zeolites such as analcime and clinoptilolite. The 290 entries, 22 figures and 67 tables cover the period from 1961 to 2014.
Description: The present issue comprises a compilation of data on diffusion in halides in either the crystalline or molten state; that is, diffusion in aqueous systems is not covered. The data cover a period of almost 50 years: from 1965 to the beginning of 2014. The over 700 entries, 205 tables and 34 figures will provide an invaluable wealth of information on diffusion in this class of material.