Defect and Diffusion Forum

ISSN: 1662-9507

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Volumes
Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: January 2014
Description: Due to its small size, the hydrogen atom is, wanted or unwanted, an ubiquitous diffusant in many metallic systems. It has long been known for its harmful effect upon mild steel sheet; the deleterious phenomenon of hydrogen-embrittlement having been recognized since the early days of the industrial revolution. Its behavior in some metals is further complicated by its tendency to form hydrides with the metal, or with various non-metallic impurities. The ability of some metals and alloys to store large quantities of hydrogen – first recognized in the 19th century - is another complicating factor. The complexity of metal-hydrogen behavior was undoubtedly also the cause of the mistaken ‘cold fusion’ claims of the late 1980s. The present issue comprises a compilation of hydrogen diffusion and permeation data in metals. These data are believed to be ‘pure’: that is, free from the interfering effects of hydride formation, etc. The almost 600 entries, 201 tables and 41 figures cover the period from 1966 to 2013. These are supplemented by an original review, by T.B.Flanagan of the University of Vermont, which has as its subject, The Role of the Thermodynamic Factor in Hydrogen Diffusion in Metal and Alloy Membranes.

349

Edited by: Antonio F. Miguel, Luiz Rocha and Andreas Öchsner
Online since: January 2014
Description: Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS).
The special session "Fluid Flow, Energy Transfer and Design" held at the 9th International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids (DSL 2013) sheltered papers of different areas ranging from physics, mathematics and chemistry to engineering. It served as a link under which authors of different areas and backgrounds came together, and make their research accessible to the varied audience. In this sense worked to counter the possible divisive tendency. This special issue is a fitting tribute to the different views since this is not a divisive tendency but the seethe of science that shapes the ever-changing landscapes of our research world.

348

Edited by: Hardev Singh Virk
Online since: December 2013
Description: Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS).
This special volume consists of eight chapters consisting of seven Review papers and one Research paper. “Luminescence Phenomena: An Introduction” is the first Chapter contributed by KVR Murthy and HS Virk. It explains the basic phenomenon of Luminescence: “Luminescence is "cold light", light from other sources of energy which can take place at normal and lower temperatures. The word luminescence was first used by a German physicist, Eilhardt Wiedemann, in 1888. In Latin ‘Lumen’ means ‘light’. The materials exhibiting this phenomenon are known as ‘Luminescent materials’ or ‘Phosphors’ meaning ‘light bearer’ in Greek. Luminescence is basically a phenomenon of emission of light from an insulator followed by prior absorption of energy from ionizing radiations like, X-rays, alpha, beta and gamma radiations. The energy lifts the atoms of the material into an excited state, and then, because excited states are unstable, the material undergoes another transition, back to its unexcited ground state, and the absorbed energy is liberated in the form of either light or heat or both. The excitation involves only the outermost electrons orbiting around the nuclei of the atoms. Luminescence efficiency depends on the degree of transformation of excitation energy into light, and there are relatively few materials that have sufficient luminescence efficiency to be of practical value”.

347

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: November 2013
Description: During the past 40 years, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become increasingly more popular for measuring diffusivities because it avoids the handling problems, environmental concerns and shortage of suitable isotopes which are associated with the use of radioactive tracer methods. It is the most sensitive of all the standard surface analytical techniques, and is capable of detecting impurity elements at less than 1ppm concentration, and bulk impurity concentrations of around 1ppb in certain cases. The sample surface is bombarded with high-energy ions, leading to the ejection of neutral and charged species. The latter can include atoms, clusters of atoms and molecular fragments. Static SIMS is used for sub-monolayer elemental analysis, dynamic SIMS is used for investigating composition as a function of depth below the surface and imaging SIMS is used for spatially-resolved elemental analysis. Static SIMS plus time-of-flight analysis, rather than the usual quadrupole mass analysis, permits a more exact quantitative analysis of specimens. The present compilation of nearly 800 items covers a selection of mainly-quantitative results, obtained using secondary ion mass spectrometry, for diffusivities in a wide range of materials.

345-346

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: October 2013
Description: Lanthanum hexaboride is useful because it possesses a high melting point (2210C), a low work function, one of the highest known electron emissivities, and is stable in vacuum. This volume summarises the extant data on the properties of this material, including the: bulk modulus, conductivity, crystal structure, Debye temperature, defect structure, elastic constants, electronic structure, emissivity, Fermi surface, hardness, heat capacity, magnetoresistance, reflectivity, resistivity, specific heat, surface structure, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric power, toughness and work function. The issue also includes original research papers on: the Pitting Resistance of 316 Stainless Steel in Ringer’s Solution, the Effect of Different Modifiers on the Microstructure and Strength of Locally Developed A356 Al-Si Alloy, the Site Preference of Zr in NiAl Dislocation Cores and its Effects on Bond Character, the Effect of Different Combinations of Salt Modifier on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A356 Al-Si Alloy, Quasicrystalline Phase Formation in High Frequency Induction Melted Al80Cu14Fe6 Alloy, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Sprue Base Design on the Flow Pattern of Aluminum Gravity Castings, the Evaluation of Surface Preparation Techniques for Steel Substrates Prior to Coating, Thermal Desorption of Hydrogen from AISI 316L Stainless Steel and Pure Nickel, Structural and Concentration Heterogeneities during the Formation of Silicide Phases in the Ti(5nm)/Ni(24nm)/Si(001)Thin-Film System, Studies of the g-Factor and Hyperfine Structure Constant for Ir4+ in CdO, Theoretical Studies of the Local Structures and Spin Hamiltonian Parameters for the Cu2+ Centers in Alkali Barium Borate Glasses, Study of the Properties of CR-39 Polymer Irradiated with Alpha Particles, Review of Diffusion and Interfacial Reactions in Sandwich Thin-Film Couples and the Correlation Coefficient between Vickers Hardness and Nuclear Techniques.

344

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: September 2013
Description: Lanthanum hexaboride is useful because it possesses a high melting point (2210C), a low work function, one of the highest known electron emissivities, and is stable in vacuum. This volume summarises the extant data on the properties of this material, including the: bulk modulus, conductivity, crystal structure, Debye temperature, defect structure, elastic constants, electronic structure, emissivity, Fermi surface, hardness, heat capacity, magnetoresistance, reflectivity, resistivity, specific heat, surface structure, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric power, toughness and work function. The issue also includes original research papers on: the Pitting Resistance of 316 Stainless Steel in Ringer’s Solution, the Effect of Different Modifiers on the Microstructure and Strength of Locally Developed A356 Al-Si Alloy, the Site Preference of Zr in NiAl Dislocation Cores and its Effects on Bond Character, the Effect of Different Combinations of Salt Modifier on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A356 Al-Si Alloy, Quasicrystalline Phase Formation in High Frequency Induction Melted Al80Cu14Fe6 Alloy, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Sprue Base Design on the Flow Pattern of Aluminum Gravity Castings, the Evaluation of Surface Preparation Techniques for Steel Substrates Prior to Coating, Thermal Desorption of Hydrogen from AISI 316L Stainless Steel and Pure Nickel, Structural and Concentration Heterogeneities during the Formation of Silicide Phases in the Ti(5nm)/Ni(24nm)/Si(001)Thin-Film System, Studies of the g-Factor and Hyperfine Structure Constant for Ir4+ in CdO, Theoretical Studies of the Local Structures and Spin Hamiltonian Parameters for the Cu2+ Centers in Alkali Barium Borate Glasses, Study of the Properties of CR-39 Polymer Irradiated with Alpha Particles, Review of Diffusion and Interfacial Reactions in Sandwich Thin-Film Couples and the Correlation Coefficient between Vickers Hardness and Nuclear Techniques.

343

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: August 2013
Description: Zinc oxide, already used millennia ago as a medicine and as an adjunct to brass production, has assumed a new importance in the modern world because of its native n-type semiconducting properties. It has, for instance, a relatively large (3.3eV) band-gap at room temperature. This leads to higher breakdown voltages, resistance to high electric fields, lower electronic noise and superior performance at high temperatures and powers. The band-gap can also be tailored by alloying with magnesium or cadmium oxides. The material exhibits other useful properties, such as a good transparency, a high electron mobility and a strong room-temperature luminescence; all of which are invaluable to the manufacture of the liquid-crystal displays of modern consumer goods. The present compilation comprises nearly 500 accounts of research on the diffusional behaviour of dopants and on the defects present in the wurtzite or zincblende structures. It is hoped that this handy compendium of data will be of value to those working on the tailoring of ZnO properties; especially with regard to the controversies concerning its doping behaviour.

342

Edited by: Hardev Singh Virk
Online since: July 2013
Description: Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS).
Public interest and concern about radiation damage effects has increased during recent times. Nuclear radiation proved to be a precursor for the study of radiation damage effects in solids. In general, all types of radiation, e.g. X-ray, gamma ray, heavy ions, fission fragments and neutrons produce damage effects in materials. Radiation damage latent tracks in solids find applications in nuclear and elementary particle physics, chemistry, radiobiology, earth sciences, nuclear engineering, and a host of other areas such as nuclear safeguards, virus counting, ion track filters, uranium exploration and archaeology. Radiation dosimetry and reactor shielding also involve concepts based on radiation damage in solids. This special volume consists of ten Chapters, including Review and Research Papers on various topics in this field.

341

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: July 2013
Description: The nickel aluminide intermetallic is a particularly useful alloy for application at high temperatures because, unlike most materials, it exhibits the unusual property of becoming stronger with increasing temperature: depending upon the minor alloying additions, the 0.2% yield strength peaks at between 600 and 800C. The reason for this anomalous behaviour can be traced to the effect of the superlattice structure upon diffusional mass transfer and defect motion. The present volume contains a compilation (350 items, 176 pages) of data specifically covering the known diffusion and defect properties of this material.

340

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: June 2013
Description: Carbon has always been an essential feature of human civilisation (not to mention the human constitution), whether as mere fuel, as an expensive bauble or as an essential component of those two supporting pillars (organic chemicals, steel) of the industrial revolution. Even since its recognition as an element, 2¼ centuries ago, it has never ceased to offer new surprises and properties. Just decades ago, students had to contend with only two main forms, graphite and diamond, but nowadays there is a plethora of nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, etc. The present volume offers a compilation (over 400 items) of data on mass diffusion, in all of the various known allotropes of carbon, spanning some 6 decades.

339

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