Defect and Diffusion Forum

ISSN: 1662-9507

Main Themes

Volumes
Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: July 2014
Description: The simple, empirical, surprisingly accurate and venerable Arrhenius equation, based upon the work of Van't Hoff, is very useful for summarising large bodies of experimentally determined diffusion data for a given host/diffusant system. It is the first port of call for any researcher planning new diffusion studies, or for engineers who need to estimate heat-treatment times in manufacturing processes. The present compilation covers Arrhenius parameters for the host-metals: aluminum, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, hafnium, indium, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, platinum, potassium, rhodium, ruthenium, scandium, silver, sodium, tantalum, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zinc and zirconium. The 1315 entries cover the period from 1927 to 2013.

352

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: June 2014
Description: The microporous aluminosilicate minerals known as Zeolites are invaluable as adsorbents, molecular sieves and catalysts because they possess a porous structure that can let pass or accommodate cations such as, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, etc. These are nevertheless loosely held and can be easily exchanged for those in an adjacent solution. Movement of other materials through Zeolites is naturally an important factor. The present compilation consists of diffusion data. These represent, as far as possible, pure diffusion, shorn of other transfer mechanisms such as permeation. Most of the results involve well-known artificially produced Zeolites, but also include information on naturally occurring Zeolites such as analcime and clinoptilolite. The 290 entries, 22 figures and 67 tables cover the period from 1961 to 2014.

351

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: February 2014
Description: The present issue comprises a compilation of data on diffusion in halides in either the crystalline or molten state; that is, diffusion in aqueous systems is not covered. The data cover a period of almost 50 years: from 1965 to the beginning of 2014. The over 700 entries, 205 tables and 34 figures will provide an invaluable wealth of information on diffusion in this class of material.

350

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: January 2014
Description: Due to its small size, the hydrogen atom is, wanted or unwanted, an ubiquitous diffusant in many metallic systems. It has long been known for its harmful effect upon mild steel sheet; the deleterious phenomenon of hydrogen-embrittlement having been recognized since the early days of the industrial revolution. Its behavior in some metals is further complicated by its tendency to form hydrides with the metal, or with various non-metallic impurities. The ability of some metals and alloys to store large quantities of hydrogen – first recognized in the 19th century - is another complicating factor. The complexity of metal-hydrogen behavior was undoubtedly also the cause of the mistaken ‘cold fusion’ claims of the late 1980s. The present issue comprises a compilation of hydrogen diffusion and permeation data in metals. These data are believed to be ‘pure’: that is, free from the interfering effects of hydride formation, etc. The almost 600 entries, 201 tables and 41 figures cover the period from 1966 to 2013. These are supplemented by an original review, by T.B.Flanagan of the University of Vermont, which has as its subject, The Role of the Thermodynamic Factor in Hydrogen Diffusion in Metal and Alloy Membranes.

349

Edited by: Antonio F. Miguel, Luiz Rocha and Andreas Öchsner
Online since: January 2014
Description: Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS).
The special session "Fluid Flow, Energy Transfer and Design" held at the 9th International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids (DSL 2013) sheltered papers of different areas ranging from physics, mathematics and chemistry to engineering. It served as a link under which authors of different areas and backgrounds came together, and make their research accessible to the varied audience. In this sense worked to counter the possible divisive tendency. This special issue is a fitting tribute to the different views since this is not a divisive tendency but the seethe of science that shapes the ever-changing landscapes of our research world.

348

Edited by: Hardev Singh Virk
Online since: December 2013
Description: Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS).
This special volume consists of eight chapters consisting of seven Review papers and one Research paper. “Luminescence Phenomena: An Introduction” is the first Chapter contributed by KVR Murthy and HS Virk. It explains the basic phenomenon of Luminescence: “Luminescence is "cold light", light from other sources of energy which can take place at normal and lower temperatures. The word luminescence was first used by a German physicist, Eilhardt Wiedemann, in 1888. In Latin ‘Lumen’ means ‘light’. The materials exhibiting this phenomenon are known as ‘Luminescent materials’ or ‘Phosphors’ meaning ‘light bearer’ in Greek. Luminescence is basically a phenomenon of emission of light from an insulator followed by prior absorption of energy from ionizing radiations like, X-rays, alpha, beta and gamma radiations. The energy lifts the atoms of the material into an excited state, and then, because excited states are unstable, the material undergoes another transition, back to its unexcited ground state, and the absorbed energy is liberated in the form of either light or heat or both. The excitation involves only the outermost electrons orbiting around the nuclei of the atoms. Luminescence efficiency depends on the degree of transformation of excitation energy into light, and there are relatively few materials that have sufficient luminescence efficiency to be of practical value”.

347

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: November 2013
Description: During the past 40 years, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become increasingly more popular for measuring diffusivities because it avoids the handling problems, environmental concerns and shortage of suitable isotopes which are associated with the use of radioactive tracer methods. It is the most sensitive of all the standard surface analytical techniques, and is capable of detecting impurity elements at less than 1ppm concentration, and bulk impurity concentrations of around 1ppb in certain cases. The sample surface is bombarded with high-energy ions, leading to the ejection of neutral and charged species. The latter can include atoms, clusters of atoms and molecular fragments. Static SIMS is used for sub-monolayer elemental analysis, dynamic SIMS is used for investigating composition as a function of depth below the surface and imaging SIMS is used for spatially-resolved elemental analysis. Static SIMS plus time-of-flight analysis, rather than the usual quadrupole mass analysis, permits a more exact quantitative analysis of specimens. The present compilation of nearly 800 items covers a selection of mainly-quantitative results, obtained using secondary ion mass spectrometry, for diffusivities in a wide range of materials.

345-346

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: October 2013
Description: Lanthanum hexaboride is useful because it possesses a high melting point (2210C), a low work function, one of the highest known electron emissivities, and is stable in vacuum. This volume summarises the extant data on the properties of this material, including the: bulk modulus, conductivity, crystal structure, Debye temperature, defect structure, elastic constants, electronic structure, emissivity, Fermi surface, hardness, heat capacity, magnetoresistance, reflectivity, resistivity, specific heat, surface structure, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric power, toughness and work function. The issue also includes original research papers on: the Pitting Resistance of 316 Stainless Steel in Ringer’s Solution, the Effect of Different Modifiers on the Microstructure and Strength of Locally Developed A356 Al-Si Alloy, the Site Preference of Zr in NiAl Dislocation Cores and its Effects on Bond Character, the Effect of Different Combinations of Salt Modifier on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A356 Al-Si Alloy, Quasicrystalline Phase Formation in High Frequency Induction Melted Al80Cu14Fe6 Alloy, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Sprue Base Design on the Flow Pattern of Aluminum Gravity Castings, the Evaluation of Surface Preparation Techniques for Steel Substrates Prior to Coating, Thermal Desorption of Hydrogen from AISI 316L Stainless Steel and Pure Nickel, Structural and Concentration Heterogeneities during the Formation of Silicide Phases in the Ti(5nm)/Ni(24nm)/Si(001)Thin-Film System, Studies of the g-Factor and Hyperfine Structure Constant for Ir4+ in CdO, Theoretical Studies of the Local Structures and Spin Hamiltonian Parameters for the Cu2+ Centers in Alkali Barium Borate Glasses, Study of the Properties of CR-39 Polymer Irradiated with Alpha Particles, Review of Diffusion and Interfacial Reactions in Sandwich Thin-Film Couples and the Correlation Coefficient between Vickers Hardness and Nuclear Techniques.

344

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: September 2013
Description: Lanthanum hexaboride is useful because it possesses a high melting point (2210C), a low work function, one of the highest known electron emissivities, and is stable in vacuum. This volume summarises the extant data on the properties of this material, including the: bulk modulus, conductivity, crystal structure, Debye temperature, defect structure, elastic constants, electronic structure, emissivity, Fermi surface, hardness, heat capacity, magnetoresistance, reflectivity, resistivity, specific heat, surface structure, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric power, toughness and work function. The issue also includes original research papers on: the Pitting Resistance of 316 Stainless Steel in Ringer’s Solution, the Effect of Different Modifiers on the Microstructure and Strength of Locally Developed A356 Al-Si Alloy, the Site Preference of Zr in NiAl Dislocation Cores and its Effects on Bond Character, the Effect of Different Combinations of Salt Modifier on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A356 Al-Si Alloy, Quasicrystalline Phase Formation in High Frequency Induction Melted Al80Cu14Fe6 Alloy, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Sprue Base Design on the Flow Pattern of Aluminum Gravity Castings, the Evaluation of Surface Preparation Techniques for Steel Substrates Prior to Coating, Thermal Desorption of Hydrogen from AISI 316L Stainless Steel and Pure Nickel, Structural and Concentration Heterogeneities during the Formation of Silicide Phases in the Ti(5nm)/Ni(24nm)/Si(001)Thin-Film System, Studies of the g-Factor and Hyperfine Structure Constant for Ir4+ in CdO, Theoretical Studies of the Local Structures and Spin Hamiltonian Parameters for the Cu2+ Centers in Alkali Barium Borate Glasses, Study of the Properties of CR-39 Polymer Irradiated with Alpha Particles, Review of Diffusion and Interfacial Reactions in Sandwich Thin-Film Couples and the Correlation Coefficient between Vickers Hardness and Nuclear Techniques.

343

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: August 2013
Description: Zinc oxide, already used millennia ago as a medicine and as an adjunct to brass production, has assumed a new importance in the modern world because of its native n-type semiconducting properties. It has, for instance, a relatively large (3.3eV) band-gap at room temperature. This leads to higher breakdown voltages, resistance to high electric fields, lower electronic noise and superior performance at high temperatures and powers. The band-gap can also be tailored by alloying with magnesium or cadmium oxides. The material exhibits other useful properties, such as a good transparency, a high electron mobility and a strong room-temperature luminescence; all of which are invaluable to the manufacture of the liquid-crystal displays of modern consumer goods. The present compilation comprises nearly 500 accounts of research on the diffusional behaviour of dopants and on the defects present in the wurtzite or zincblende structures. It is hoped that this handy compendium of data will be of value to those working on the tailoring of ZnO properties; especially with regard to the controversies concerning its doping behaviour.

342

Showing 31 to 40 of 236 Main Themes