Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Composite Lead-Free Solder
A series of experiments conducted on a lead-free eutectic solder (Sn-3.5%Ag) have shown that addition of trace amounts of nanometer-sized particles does have an influence on mechanical properties of materials. In this study, three different types of nanoparticles (copper, nickel and iron) were chosen as the reinforcing candidate. For each particulate reinforcement the reflow process was performed under identical cooling conditions. Addition of trace amounts of nano-particles alters the kinetics governing solidification of the composite solder paste while concurrently exerting an influence on microstructural development, particularly the formation and presence of second phases in the solidified end product. The nano-sized powder particle-reinforced composite solder revealed an increase in microhardness compared to the unreinforced monolithic counterpart.
M. Gupta and Christina Y.H. Lim
D.C. Lin et al., "Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Composite Lead-Free Solder", Journal of Metastable and Nanocrystalline Materials, Vol. 23, pp. 145-150, 2005