Abstract: Layered structure can greatly improve the toughness of the ceramics. Manufacture techniques, including matrixes and interlayer materials choosing and matching, structure and interface design, parameter deciding, processing of layered materials making were introduced in this paper.
Abstract: Titanium surface was covered with thin layers of titanium monocarbo-nitride, Ti(C,N) and nitrogen-rich a-titanium, after a titanium specimen was heat-treated at a temperature between 1388 and 1573 K in a graphite cup in an atmosphere of pure nitrogen. The total thickness of those layers increased in accordance with the parabolic law when both temperature and time of the heat treatment increased. The
parabolic rate constants was described as k = 4.83 × 10-6 exp (-178000/RT)m2/s using Arrhenius’ equation. Vickers hardness of the Ti(C, N) layer remained at approximately 2000 but that of the a-titanium layer gradually decreased from 1500 to 500, as the distance from the surface increased. The carbo-nitridetreated titanium exhibited excellent resistances in wear and corrosion compared with those of pure titanium.
Abstract: The concept of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was originated in the research field of thermal barrier coatings. Continuous changes in the composition, grain size, porosity, etc., of these materials result in gradients in such properties as mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. In recent years, functionally graded structural composite materials have received increased attention as promising
candidate materials to exhibit better mechanical and functional properties than homogeneous materials or simple composite materials. Therefore the research area of FGMs has been expending in the development of various structural and functional materials, such as cutting tools, photonic crystals, dielectric and piezoelectric ceramics, thermoelectric semiconductors, and biomaterials. We have
developed functionally graded structural ceramic/metal composite materials for relaxation of thermal stress, functionally graded anti-oxidation coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and functionally graded dielectric ceramic composites to develop advanced dielectric ceramics with flat characteristics of dielectric constant in a wide temperature range. This paper introduces functionally graded coatings for
C/C composites with superior oxidation resistance at high temperatures.
Abstract: This paper introduces the development of two kinds of graded piezoceramic bending actuators. For designing the graded compositional profiles, classical lamination theory (CLT) is used to explore the optimal gradient that generates large electromechanical response. As the first model material, a laminated
piezoceramic bimorph actuator was designed and fabricated with a graded compositional distribution of PZT and Pt, and its electric-induced bending characteristics were evaluated and compared with the analytical results by CLT. Furthermore, porosity-graded PZT ceramics were developed, which may be
used as the preforms for the infiltration process to fabricate bending actuators with graded ceramic/metal and/or ceramic/polymer interfaces. The fabrication process and property evaluation of homogenously porous and porosity-graded PZT ceramics were introduced.
Abstract: Si3N4-TiN based multi-layer ceramics laminates have been produced. With external
compressive layers, laminates with a three-fold increase in KIc over the monolithic ceramics have been realised. When external tensile layers are used in conjunction with thin internal compressive layers, energy absorbing crack deflection and bifurcation processes are observed.
Abstract: Laminated ceramics with high mechanical properties were fabricated in the Si3N4/BN
system. The mechanical properties at elevated temperatures were tested, and the oxidation behavior during tested procedure was studied at the same time. The flexure strength of the Si3N4/BN laminated ceramics changed a little below 1000°C. The displacement-load curves appeared non-linear characteristic even at high temperature. During testing procedure at high temperature, oxidation behavior of silicon nitride and silicon carbide happened, and no oxidation product of boron nitride
was found. The silicon nitride layers were oxidized to form a protective silicate scale, which prevented oxidation of the boron nitride interlayers. The stability of boron nitride was beneficial to the boron nitride interlayer to partition the silicon nitride matrix layers at high temperature.
Abstract: Self-sealed laminar Si3N4/SiC composites, with different cross-section shapes and various thickness ratios of Si3N4 to SiC, have been fabricated. The laminates consist alternately of thicker Si3N4 layers ranging from 100 to 500µm and thinner SiC layers ranging from 6 to 15µm after sintering. Preliminary results indicate that SiC thin layer forms during sintering according to the reaction Si3N4 + 3C
® 3SiC + 2N2, which is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. An excellent physical and chemical compatibility between Si3N4 and SiC layers was observed. The self-sealed Si3N4/SiC composites not only demonstrate a superb resistance to delamination, usually associated with the plate-form ones, but also show a high damage-tolerance behavior. The laminated Si3N4/ SiC composite with a layer thickness ratio of Si3N4 to SiC of approximately 40 gives the highest value of work of fracture (WOF) of approximately 406 kJ/m3, whereas the highest toughness of 21 MPam1/2 was achieved at the layer thickness ratio of 50. The effects of the relative thickness of Si3N4 and SiC layers on the densification of the laminates are
examined and fracture behavior and microstructure of the Si3N4/SiC laminates discussed.
Abstract: The high-temperature mechanical properties were very important to structural materials, especially structural ceramics. Hence, the strength, elastic modulus, stress relaxation and creep behavior of the multilayer materials at elevated temperature were studied in this paper. According to the curves of mechanical properties varieties with temperature risen from room-temperature to 1300°C, the multilayer materials could remain relatively high mechanical properties until 1150°C.
Otherwise, the creep function of the multilayer composites was also determined, in which the stress exponent was 1.4 and activation energy was 204kJ/mol. By contrasting to the monolithic ceramics of Al2O3 and Ti3SiC2, the main creep mechanisms include: interface diffusion creep (in Al2O3 layers), dislocation movement creep, grain delamination and sliding (in Ti3SiC2 layers).
Abstract: The TiB2/(TiB2+AlN)/AlN/(AlN+Cu)/Cu functionally graded materials were successfully fabricated via spark plasma sintering (SPS) method, in which a temperature gradient was achieved by using a specially designed mold and different sintering sequences were carried out. XRD analysis and SEM observations were respectively performed upon the TiB2/AlN/Cu composites. The results show that no
new phases were introduced into the composites after mechanically milling or SPS process. The layered composites were found to have a dense microstructure, which changes gradually along a composition gradient. The present FGMs are developed as electrode materials of a solar thermoelectric module.
Abstract: In-situ toughened TiC-Ti5Si3 composites were fabricated using reactive sintering of Ti and SiC via spark plasma sintering (SPS). The focus of this work on the content of TiC in final composites was different. The phase constituents and microstructures of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fracture toughness at room temperature
was also measured by indentation tests. The results showed that the corporation of TiC greatly enhances the fracture toughness of TiC-Ti5Si3 composites.