Wafer rotation grinding, as an important processing technology, is widely used in manufacturing and back thinning of the silicon wafer. However, the surface/subsurface integrity of the ground wafer, which has important influences on the surface quality and the output of the wafer in subsequent process, is becoming an attention-catching problem. This study is aimed at experimental investigation of the surface/subsurface integrity in wafer rotation grinding. The surface roughness, the subsurface crack configurations, the subsurface damage depth (SSD) and the phase transformations are evaluated by corresponding methods. The results show that the integrity of the ground wafer has a close relationship with the grit size of the grinding wheel. The surface roughness and the SSD increase with increasing of the grit size. The subsurface crack configurations of (100) silicon wafers are complicated. The material removal mechanism is different under different grinding conditions. Ductile grinding is accompanied by the phase transformations of diamond structure silicon (Si-I). The amorphous silicon (α-Si), the Si-XII phase (r8-rhombohedral structure) and the Si-III phase (bc8-body-centered cubic structure) exist on the near surface region of the wafer ground by #600 and #2000 grinding wheels.